Topics: Sentence, Grammatical conjunction, Subject Pages: 3 (736 words) Published: May 14, 2013
* Languages of the world show 2 fundamentally contrasting w-o patterns: V-final ~V-non-final (= V-initial; V-second; V-medial)
* Clause order = mirrored by phrasal order:
i.e. the cat's tail (MH) ~ the tail of the cat (HM)
MH or OV lgs. are usually prepositional (OV herein) and have case inflections, whereas HM or VO lgs. are usually postpositional (VO in here)
* OE. basically V-final –> PDE basically V-non-final (most frequently V-second): OV –> VO
* This change implies coexisting patterns, but not indeterminate w-o The pattern of main clauses changes before that of subordinate clauses This shift effectively took place in the ME period, but PDE still shows some OV characteristics (e.g. in NP: Mod.-Head) and will probably never become rigidly VO i.e. the change has not gone to completion in all parts of the grammar) The shift did not take place in other WG languages: Dutch and German are still OV, very similar to OE syntax. * The basic OV order of OE is most readily observed in subordinate clauses where the verb tends to be in final position: OV or VOV. * In main clauses, the OV order is overridden by 2 patterns of independent origin, but which fed each other, giving gave way to the change that took place in ME. Verb in second position

* V2 in most main clauses: finite V follows an initial constituent: pronominal adverbs of locative, temporal or negative origin: þær, þa, næfre, ne AP of time: in those days
hw-questions (maintained in PDE wh-question)
* V2 has nothing to do with subject position: subject can precede or follow V2 * In transitive main clauses, V2 may lead to separation of VP: AUX(2) – O – Main V Weight order
* light – heavy (phonological terms) i.e. short ~ long constituents pronouns, adverbials = clause initial
complex phrases, subordinate clauses = clause final
* PDE still favors light elements clause initially and heavy elements...
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