•A stirred-up state of hopelessness that results when a person is prevented from reaching a particular goal to which he has aspired or prevented from satisfying his physiological needs •The condition of being thwarted(prevented) in the satisfaction of a motive
Sources of frustration
•Physiological problems- more or less are our basic needs such as food, water, shelter etc. •Environmental problems-problems set by culture in which man lives •Psychological problems-internal problems are most difficult to resolve as they are within the inner feelings of a person •The organism itself- physical handicaps and personal limitations can obstruct one’s goals
•Is the simultaneous presence of opposing or mutually exclusive impulses, desires, or tendencies. Three basic patterns:
–Conflicting attraction- may cause frustration if a person is attracted to two things but can have only one. –Attraction-repulsion- may cause frustration if a person cannot decide on something he likes to do because it is closely associated with something he dislikes –Conflicting-avoidance- may cause frustration if a person has to choose between two things which he dislikes.
Types of defense reaction
•Displacement- it is taking our impulses on less threatening target Forms of displacement
–Scapegoating - is a form of hostility expressed against a person or an object other than the original source of frustration. –Free-floating- hostility becomes generalized so that it is directed at almost anything or anybody. –Suicide- hostility is directed toward the self.
B. Withdrawal reactions
•Fantasy- it is a temporary escape or retreat from the difficulties of real life into a world of fantasy where one’s desire can be fulfilled in imagination. •Identification- the individual enhances his feeling of importance by imitating or acquiring the characteristics of a person whom he admires. •Repression- it is a process of pushing...