From Quaid-e-Azam to Quaid-e-Awam
The twentieth century has witnessed remarkable changes in the field of politics, sports, science and technology. This ever changing landscape of the world has warranted great leaders to emerge and significantly alter the course of history. Such names include Steve Jobs, Jack Welch, Bill Gates and Mother Teresa; all of which have had a profound impact on the global arena. However, where there has been great prosperity, there has also been great injustice, poverty and destruction. This has led to a new breed of leaders emerging in order to tackle such challenges. Names like Mahatir Mohamad, Nelson Mandela, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Mahatma Gandhi, John.F.Kennedy and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto have surfaced in order to change the political landscape forever. This essay focuses on two of the greatest leaders that Pakistan has ever produced; Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. It starts off with several definitions of leadership and explanation of various leadership theories. Next it divulges into a brief background of both leaders and seeks to apply different leadership theories to their actions. Finally, it concludes with an evaluation of the effectiveness of different leadership styles adopted by each leader and their significance in the pages of history. Leadership according to the Encyclopedia of Social Sciences is the “relation between an individual and a group built around some common interest and behaving in a manner directed or determined by him.” In the same vein, Herbert G. Hicks and C.R. Gullett identified leadership as the ‘ability to influence the behavior of others in a particular direction.’ However there is no agreed definition of leadership and Philip Selznick states that Leadership ‘is a kind of work done to meet the needs of a social situation.’ It is argued that the notion of leadership is different for all individuals as James McGregor Burns so eloquently puts it “Leadership is one of the most observed and least understood phenomena on earth”. Political leadership however is different from leadership as per se and cannot be defined in entirety. Political leadership is referred to as a specialized role in terms of both aspiration for and exercise of power through either governmental or non-governmental structures. Different scholars single out several elements to analyze political leadership. Thomas Carlyle pointed to the ‘heroic’ aspect of political leadership whereas Max Weber developed the term ‘Charisma’ to denote types of authority. However variables that appear constant in the analysis of political leadership include power, authority, legitimacy and compliance. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, also known as Quaid-e-Azam (Great Leader) and Baba-i-Qaum (Father of the Nation), is accredited for almost single handedly creating the nation of Pakistan for the Muslims of the Sub Continent. Born in 1876 to a religious family, Jinnah went abroad for higher education. His academic excellence helped him land a place in London’s prestigious Lincoln’s Inn where he gained education to become a barrister. On completion he returned back to India to set up his own practice and joined the Indian National Congress at the age of thirty. Soon he became to be known as an excellent orator and a prominent politician. However troubled by the creation and politics of the All Indian Muslim League which did not emphasize Hindu-Muslim unity, Jinnah went into political exile where he took time off to reflect back on the political situation in India. Soon he realized that Muslims should have a separate homeland and he returned back to make that dream come alive. After returning home, Jinnah took over the leadership of the All India Muslim League and passed the historic ‘Lahore Resolution’ where he put forth his demand for a separate homeland. On 14th August 1947, after facing tough opposition from all quarters, Jinnah was able to create a separate homeland for the Muslims of the Sub Continent in the...
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