From Human Prehistory to the Early Civilizations

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Human migration began in eastern Africa, where remains of the earliest types of human remains were found to originate. Gradual migration was caused by the need to find scarce food and slowly caused the spread of the human population across to the Americas and Australia.

Agricultural societies first emerged in the middle east. Since population was increasing, it encouraged people to find a more reliable food source and since the ice age had come to an end, it brought the retreat of certain big game animals such as mastodons

Settled and built houses

Civilization first arose in egypt, mesopotamia, indus river basin, and china. Characteristics included cities, government, religion, writing, art, and social structure.
 The civilizations differed depending on the geography of the location. The geography decided what types of houses agriculture and food sources they needed to survive.
 Political - kings, government and priesthood
Religious - they believed in powerful gods, performed rituals, and had temples for gods
Social - alphabet
Economic - independent businesses and slaves
 People in civilizations looked down upon societies that lacked civilizations.
 The government enforced duties and a court system was provided.
 Judaism gave the world a clear monotheistic religion.

The older civilizations depended greater on hunting and gathering and the newer civilizations agriculture, domestication of plants and animals. They all used tools, they all believed in a form of religion, had formal governments, and writing.

Vocabulary and Identifications

Paleolithic Age (Old Stone) - The Old Stone Age ending in 12,000 B.C.E; typified by use of crude stone tools and hunting and gathering for subsistence.

Neolithic Age (New Stone) - The New Stone Age between 8,000 and 5,000 B.C.E.; period in which adaptation of sedentary agriculture occurred; domestication of plants and animals accomplished.
 Slash and Burn Agriculture - A system of cultivation typical of shifting cultivators; forest floors cleared by fire are then planted. 
 Neolithic Revolution(s) - The Succession of technological innovations and changes in human organization that led to the development of agriculture, 8,5000 - 3,5000 B.C.E.
 Pastoralism - social organization based on livestock raising as the primary economic activity.
 Domestication - To tame an animal and keep it as a pet or for farm produce
 Sedentary - Not migratory 

Civilization - the stage of cultural development at which writing and the keeping of written records is attained
 Institution - a society or organization founded for a religious, educational, social, or similar purpose
 Patriarchal - a system of society or government controlled by men
 Animism - A religious outlook that sees gods in many aspect of nature and propitiates them to help control and explain nature, typical of Mesopotamian religoins
Polytheism - The belief of more than one god
Monotheism - The belief that there is only one god

Map exercises

Map 1.1: The spread of Human Populations, c. 10,000 B.C.E
 Africa appears to be the home of humans and their near relatives because the human populations originated in this area.
 Human remains such as bones and artifacts provide evidence that verifies that man migrated to the Americas and Australia.
 Map 1.2:The Spread of Agriculture

The middle east seems to be the most important core are for agriculture because it spread its agriculture to many more regions than any other core area of agriculture.
 The area that had the greater advancements had originated the spread of agriculture to the other areas surrounding it.
 Beans and yams had two different areas of first cultivation.
 Bananas, rice, and yams arrived in Africa when people from other parts migrated and spread their culture to those parts of Africa.

Map 1.3: Egypt, Kush, and Axum

The rivers and many bodies of water protect Egypt from invasion.
 The Nile River speeds up transportation.
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