From Human Prehistory to the Early Civilizations

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Chapter 1 Notes
From Human Prehistory to the Early Civilizations

I. Introduction
A. __________________Human Origin_______ – 2.5 million years ago 1. 1/4000 of earth’s existence – 24 hour day – last 5 minutes Major Human Evolution slowed ___140,000________ years ago with modern ___Homo Sapiens_____________________ Erectus 1st “______Out of Africa____________________” migration 1.7 million years ago years ago B. Human negatives and positives

1. ____________Aggressiveness____________, long baby time, back problems, death fears 2. ____Grip_____, high/regular sex drive, ________________omnivores______, facial expressions, ____speech_______ C. _________ Paleolithic_____________ (Old Stone) Age – 2.5 million to 12000 BCE 1. ____________Simple tools_____________ – increase in size, brain capacity – Homo erectus II. Late Paleolithic Developments

________________Homo Sapiens sapiens_______________________________ – 120,000 years ago – killed off others? ____________Population________________ growth required change – 1 square mile to hunt/gather for 2 people Long breast feeding – limit fertility

Relative gender equality – women harder, but both contributed Rituals for death, explain ____environment_________________, rules for social behavior Greatest achievement – spread over earth
__Fire___________/animal skin
14,000 _________Great ice age__________________________ ended Tools – sharpen animal bones, rafts
____________Domesticated________________ animals
Conflicts w/ others – bone breaks/skull fractures
B. Knowledge based on ________cave painting, tool remains, ________________________, _________________________, ____________________________ (Lascaux Caves in France) http://www.lascaux.culture.fr/index.php#/en/02_00.xml

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* III. _________________Neolithic___________ (New Stone) Age Revolution * A. ______agriculture_______________________ changed everything – could support more people * 1. Settle one spot – focus on economic, political, religious goals * 2. ______14,000-10,000BCE___________________________ – 6 million to 100 million people * Climate warms toward “end” of last ice age-______big game___________ hard to find

B. Causes of Agriculture
* 1. ______________Population____________ increase – better climate * 2. Big game animals ___________Decreasing_____________ – hunting yield declined * 3. Gradual change – harvesting _wild grains_______________________ to planting seeds * __________________Economoic___ (surplus, specialization, trade ) * _________Technological____________ ( writing, irrigation, metalwork and pottery) * ________Political_____________ (priest/king bureaucracy and military, city-states) * ______________Cultural_______ (complex religions, class system, and population growth) All = “__________________Civilization_____” (Latin meaning city, “civic”) * C. New animals domesticated – _______Pigs_____, sheep, goats, ________cattle_______ * 1. Meat, skins, dairy

* 2. Advantage to Europe?
* D. Why __Middle East______________________?
* 1. Water source, fertile area, not forested, lacked animals * E. “_________Revolution________________” gradual – many combined changes w/ hunting gathering – 1000 years F. Effects
* 1. Longer work week – labor intensive
* 2. Build houses, villages
* 3. Varied clothing
G. Resistance – too complicated, boring, difficult
* 1. Disease – those in villages developed ____Immunity_____________ – nomads died off/joined * 2. Some ____Isolated______________ societies still avoid * a. Harsh ____Climate___________, no exchange of _________Knowledge_________ * b. Tough, nomadic invaders

* 3. Nomads – not that influential accept for interaction H. Changes
* 1. Specialization
* 2. ________Technology______________ – control of nature – storage facilities, pottery * 3. Metal tools – ____Bronze Age________________...
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