III. HISTORY OF ULTIMATE FRISBEE
a.) Invention of the flying disc
b.) Invention of disc sports
IV. INVENTION OF ULTIMATE FRISBEE
V. PRESENT TIMES OF ULTIMATE FRISBEE
b.) The typical ultimate player
VI. THE FUTURE OF ULTIMATE FRISBEE
VII. TOTAL OBSERVATION
VIII. RECOMMENDATIONS/ SUGGESTIONS
The Game of Ultimate
Ultimate is a team sport played by two teams of seven players on nearly American-Football-sized field with two zones on the opposite ends of the field. The game starts with a throw-off which is similar to a kick-off in American Football. The offense attempts to advance the disc by throwing and catching it, while the pulling team (the team that had the throw-off) covers the offense in either man-to-man or zone defense. A player who catches the disc is allowed up to three steps and must then establish a pivot foot before throwing. There is no running with the disc. A turnover occurs anytime the disc is dropped by an offense player, hits the ground, goes out of bounds, is intercepted or is knocked down away by the defense. A touchdown is scored when the offensive team catches the disc in the opponent endzone. This is worth one point. The defensive team then returns to the opposite side of the field to receive the throw-off. Regulation games are up to 21 points or a certain time limit.
Spirit of the Game
“Spirit of the Game ... is the underlying philosophy of Ultimate.”It is the most important rule in every kind of disc sport. The reason for this is, that the sport is played on a self- officiated basis so there are no referees. All line violation, possession and foul calls are made by the players on the playing field. The background of Spirit of the Game was the problem of the “inventors” of Ultimate to define a foul. The first definition of a foul said, “that a foul constituted ‘any action sufficient to arouse the ire of your opponent.”Nowadays Spirit of the Game is the first part of the official WFDF Ultimate rules. But Spirit of the Game means more than a rule. An Ultimate player always praise and supports successful actions on both teams. It is a normal thing to introduce yourself to the opponent player at the beginning of every point and to wish him a good game. And after the game both teams stand in a circle talking about the game and singing a song for the opponent team. So it is a lot more than just a short handshake after a game. Introduction:
Over recent years what have been variously termed alternative or lifestyle sports (Wheaton, 2004) have increasingly become the focus of academic study. Examples of such activities and related papers include skateboarding (Beal, 1995), snowboarding (Humphreys, 1997), windsurfing (Wheaton, 2000) and surfing (Butts, 2001). These sports are considered alternative as they have sought to challenge accepted concepts of modern Western achievement sport (Eichberg, 1998; Rhinehart and Sydnor, 2003) and typically have evolved from North America, having later been imported to Europe (Bourdieu, 1984). Another lesser- known example that has made the transatlantic jump is that of Ultimate Frisbee. Ultimate Frisbee (known simply as Ultimate to participants) is a fast paced, non-contact, mixed team sport played with a flying disc (or Frisbee), which marries features of a number of invasion games, such as American Football and netball, into a simple yet, demanding game (UKU, 2008). To date, little has been written about Ultimate or indeed the developmental process which has given rise to the creation and establishment of alternative sport. What this paper seeks to do is to examine the evolution of Ultimate Frisbee and illustrate the key stages of its development. Ultimate, as with all disc sports, would not exist without the invention of the flying disc, or Frisbee, as it is...