Freud’s Personality Theory in Literature
Literature is a wide field in which it includes many genres, subjects and styles. A literature work can consist of many subtitles, also such as historical and scientific knowledge as well as critic, satire and etc. Many of the literature works that we assume as successful in fact deal with more than only one subtext. Either a historical reference or a scientific knowledge has been placed in it. The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde or The Portrait of Dorian Gray are only two of the above mentioned sub texted works. Both Robert Louis Stevenson and Oscar Wilde witness Freud’s life and studies and they make use of his theories in their successful works. Freud’s personality theory in which includes three drives of our conscious is obviously observed in both works. Sigmund Freud, a famous neurologist living between 1856 and 1939, worked over psychoanalysis during his life and separated the human conscious into three drives which are controlling and shaping our behaviours from birth to death. Freud believed that personality has three structure; the id, the ego and the superego. “Superficially, Freud's functional discrimination seems to repeat Plato's. The id is the agency of bodily desires, the ego the mediating function, and the super-ego has the care of moral prohibitions.”(Rieff173) The id is Freudian structure of personality that consists of instincts, which are an individual’s reservoir
of psychic energy. We are born with the id and it residues within the unconsciousness. It functions according to pleasure principle in that it seeks to maximize pleasure and minimize any discomfort. It is illogical and in search of only pleasure without thought to what is practical, safe or moral. The ego, unlike the id, functions according to the reality principle and represents reality to a considerable extent, reason. “In other words, the double becomes this outward manifestation of the unconscious.”(Guedes30) This period...
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