Sigmund Freud developed a theory of how our sexuality starts from a very young age and develops through various fixations. If these stages are not psychologically completed and released, one can be trapped by them. This may lead to various defense mechanisms to avoid the anxiety and stress produced by the unresolved conflicts in these stages. Table: The Stages of Psycho-Sexual Development
0-2 yearsOralMouth: sucking, biting, swallowingWeaning away from mother's breast 2-4 yearsAnalAnus: defecating or retaining faecesToilet training 4-5 yearsPhallicGenitalsOedipus (boys), Electra (girls)
6 years- pubertyLatencySexual urges sublimated into sports and hobbies. Same-sex friends also help avoid sexual feelings. puberty onwardsGenitalPhysical sexual changes reawaken repressed needs. Direct sexual feelings towards others lead to sexual gratification.Social rules Fixation
Strong conflict can fixate people at early stages.
Oral fixation has two possible outcomes.
•The Oral receptive personality is preoccupied with eating/drinking and reduces tension through oral activity such as eating, drinking, smoking, biting nails. They are generally passive, needy and sensitive to rejection. They will easily swallow other people's ideas. •The Oral aggressive personality is hostile and verbally abusive to others, using mouth-based aggression. Anal fixation
Anal fixation, which may be caused by too much punishment during toilet training, has two possible outcomes. •The Anal retentive personality is stingy, with a compulsive seeking of order and tidiness. The person is generally stubborn and perfectionist. •The Anal expulsive personality is an opposite of the Anal retentive personality, and has a lack of self control, being generally messy and careless. Phallic fixation
At the age of 5 or 6, near the end of the phallic stage, boys experience the Oedipus Complex...