Freud's Theory of Id, Ego, Superego

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Sigmund Freud believed that our mind always have conflicts with itself. Anxiety and unhappiness is the main symptoms for this situation. Bertha Pappenhein alias Anna O case is one of the classic case study by Freud (Stevenson, 1996). Anna O is a young girl in her early twenties; she was a patient of Dr.Breuer. She showed some physiological and psychological disturbance like nervous cough, rigid paralysis, eye movement disturbed, power of speech reduces and others (Stevenson, 1996). After doing some hypnosis, Freud noticed that these disturbances are actually parts of her memories while she was nursing her dying father. There was once where her neighbour played a wonderful music, she was so excited and she started dancing; soon she had an urge to be at her neighbour’s house and thus leaving her father’s bedside. At that moment, she felt guilt and sadness for leaving her father’s bedside. After some time, she covers the internal conflict by coughing (Stevenson, 1996). This case had brought Freud to believe that our mind is divided into three parts- unconscious, conscious and preconscious minds which more commonly known as the id, ego and superego (Ciccarelli & White, 2012). The id or it is the primary personality found in an infant. The ids are usually demanding, immoral, illogical, irrational and selfish. It ignores about other’s desire or the reality and place it’s satisfaction at the first place (Ciccarelli & White, 2012). This is because id only functions to seek and maximize it’s pleasure and avoid pain, we say that id serves the pleasure principle (Schultz & Schultz, 2009). For example, a newborn baby; one who cries when the need is not reached but does not have the knowledge to satisfy the pleasure. Hence, the only way for the hungry infant to bring satisfaction is through reflex action. Freud has proposed this as the primary principle process (Schultz & Schultz, 2009). The only part in our mind which is in contact with reality is the ego (Feist & Feist,...
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