CAUSES OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
Describe the leadership of Louis XVI (16th) of France.
indecisive leader/ easily persuaded
put off financial problems.
French support for the colonists in the American War of Independence had brought the country to the verge of bankruptcy
agreed to summon the 'estatesgeneral' (a form of parliament, but without real power) in order to try and raise taxes.
people were angered by Louis' refusal to allow the three estates the first (clergy), second (nobles) and third (commons) to meet simultaneously, the Third Estate proclaimed itself a national assembly, declaring that only it had the right to represent the nation.
king intended to suppress the assembly provoked the popular storming of the Bastille prison
attempted to escape,considered proof of treason
forced to accept a new constitution, thereby establishing a constitutional monarchy.
executed at the guillotine on 21 January 1793
1. Describe the lifestyle and habits of Marie Antoinette.
accusations of frivolity, extravagance and scandalous behaviour
discredited the monarchy
Spent most of her time with her stylists and getting her hair done
Spent so much money in gambling and things
Which war drove France into debt?
The French and Indian war (seven years war)
What other factors made life difficult for the French people in 1789?
The vast majority of the population were peasants who worked and lived on the land. had to pay feudal dues in money and in kind to the lord of the manor tithes, payable in kind, to the church.
obliged to use the lord’s mill, bread oven and wine press rather than have their own and to allow him to hunt freely on their land.
tried and judged in a court presided over by their lord
How did the Enlightenment affect the thinking of the middle class (aka bourgeoisie) of France?
nobility were an exclusive group who enjoyed various tax exemptions and a privileged access to the top posts in the state
this was resented by rich people of nonnoble origin – the bourgeoisie – who were to provide the leadership of the French Revolution.
CONSERVATIVE STAGE OF THE REVOLUTION
What does the term Old Regime refer to in France? (see
Identify the 3 estate classes and the members of each. What percentage of the population made up each estate? (see slide)
Who formed the National Assembly?
1789 Louis XVI called for the constitution of EstatesGeneral assembly made out of representatives from each of the three major orders of the French society (the nobles, the clergy, and the rest), formed only in times of crisis.
representatives disagreed on the decision system:
nobles and the clergy wanted to vote by order, which would have given them the control of the EstatesGeneral
the Commons, the largest group, and representing the widest part of the population, wanted votes to be counted on the number of representatives. groups clashed Commons formed their own assembly, which would become the National Assembly. They were
joined by progressists from two remaining orders during the Tennis Court Oath they decided to keep working until they finished writing a Constitution for the country. What type of government did the National Assembly create in France?
What was the Tennis Court Oath?
people went to assemble and were locked out, they moved next door into the tennis court. They swore to actually represent the entire country (see above)
What was the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 1789? Name two rights that it guaranteed.
“The representatives of the French people, constituted as a National Assembly, and considering that ignorance, neglect, ...
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