Table of Contents
Unit one: Enlightenment (page 1)
Holy Roman Empire
Friedrich Wilhelm I
War of the Austrian Succession
Seven Years’ War
Voltaire - Candide
Diderot - Encyclopedie
Rousseau - The Social Contract, general will, The New Heloise, Emile
François Quesnay - The Physiocrats, Laissez- faire
Adam Smith - The Wealth of Nations, Laissez-faire
Cesare Beccaria - On Crimes and Punishments
Montesquieu - The Persian Letters, The Spirit of the Laws
Enlightened Despots Handout
Machiavelli, The Prince
Unit two: American and French Revolutions (page 12)
An enlightened despot - a monarch with absolute power who is sophisticated and educated (enlightened tyrant)
Henry IV (1589 - 1610)
* The first Bourbon king of France.
* He came to power at the end of the Renaissance (1589). * Raised a Huguenot (Protestant).
* He married the old king’s daughter, Margaret. He didn’t like her very much though. She died, and he later on married Marie de Medici. * Converted to Catholicism to appease French populace.
* Passed the Edict of Nantes in 1598 that allowed Protestants to practice their faith in certain places. * Henry IV was much loved. But, when he decided to start a war with the Austrians, he was assassinated by radicals.
Louis XIII (1610 - 1643)
* He was a little kid when Henry IV was assassinated. Cardinal Richelieu acted as the regent (later?). Wikipedia: Marie de Medici acted as his regent until 1614. * Richelieu was very influential.
* Louis XIII married Anne of Austria. But, he really disliked her mainly because she kept on having dead children. * People thought there was something wrong with her, because all the babies were dead. Louis XIII thought that she might have been deliberately killing the babies.
* Practiced absolute monarchy
* Centralized power and got rid of the parliament (estates-general) in 1614. He also took power away from the nobles and gave it all to the monarch.
Wikipedia: “Cardinal Richelieu played a major role in Louis XIII's reign from 1624, decisively shaping the destiny of France for the next eighteen years. As a result of Richelieu's work, Louis XIII became one of the first examples of an absolute monarch. Under Louis and Richelieu, the crown successfully intervened in the Thirty Years' War against the Hapsburgs, managed to keep the French nobility in line, and retracted the political and military privileges granted to the Huguenots by Henry IV (while maintaining their religious freedoms).”
Louis XIV (1643 - 1715)
* 20 years into Louis XIII and Anne’s marriage, Louis XIV was born. * Was considered a miracle child and was nicknamed the “Sun King”. Apparently the sun shone on him wherever he walked. * Wikipedia: Mother Anne was regent but then entrusted power to Cardinal Mazarin. * Louis XIV will listen to Cardinal Mazarin’s advice until Cardinal Mazarin’s death. The cardinal continued to centralize power all the way until he died. * When Louis XIV was nine, there was a rebellion in France called the Frondes. * He was terrorized and traumatized; thus, hated Paris.
* When Cardinal Mazarin dies, he becomes the ruler. The treasury had been built up throughout the years... But of course, the idiot goes and uses it on his ginormous house and war. * Louis XIV is a horrible general. But apparently he thought he was all pro. * France verged on the edge of bankruptcy.
* Louis XIV is the longest ruling monarch in Europe ever - 72 years and 110 days. * Louis XIV’s palace, Versailles, was built for him about 10km...