Purpose:
to use collected data and the kinematics equations to determine the value of local gravity

Data:
height 161 cm(1 m/100 cm) = 1.61 m
mass of small ball 16.5 g
mass of big ball 28.0 g
12345678910Average
Small0.585
sec0.571
sec0.567
sec0.571
sec0.571
sec0.572
sec0.571
sec0.574
sec0.576
sec0.571
sec0.573
sec
Big0.573
sec0.568
sec0.569
sec0.569
sec0.570
sec0.569
sec0.571
sec0.563
sec0.571
sec0.570
sec0.569
sec

Analysis of Data:
1. Determine the average time of each set of ten drops.
See data table.
2. Use the average time, height and kinematics equations to determine local gravity.
Small Ball: ∆y = vit+(1/2)at2
1.61 = (0*0.573)+(1/2)a(0.5732)
a = 9.81 m/s2
Big Ball: ∆y = vit+(1/2)at2
1.61 = (0*0.569)+(1/2)a(0.5692)
a = 9.95 m/s2
3. Calculate the percent error between each calculated local gravity and the accepted value of gravity, 9.8 m/s2.
Small Ball: [(9.81–9.8)/9.8]*100 = 0.10%
Big Ball: [(9.95-9.8)/9.8]*100 = 1.53%
4. How do the drop times compare between the two different sized balls? Is this consistent with the concepts learned in class? Explain.
The drop times between the two different sized balls are very similar. The difference
between the two averages is only 0.004 seconds. This is consistent with the concepts
learned in class; we learned that all objects fall at the same rate. The two balls fell at very
close rates.

Error Analysis:
Air resistance could have caused the smaller ball to fall at a slightly slower rate. Also, the machine might not have been reset to zero before the ball was released. See #3 of the “Analysis of Data” section for percent error calculations.

Conclusion:
All objects, no matter what the volume or mass, fall at the same rate, as seen by the very close gravity values of the 16.5 g ball and 28.0 g ball. This lab was easy and quick to do. The only problem was...

...FreeFallLab
Natalie Soria
Lab Partners:
Ryan Michaely
Iqra Haji
Yan Huang
1. Purpose:
The purpose of this experiment is to determine the acceleration due to gravity by observing the motion of a free falling object.
2. Equipment Used:
A. Timer Switch
B. Time-of-Flight Accessory
C. Control Box
D. AC adapter
E. Drop Box
F. Steel ball
G. Solid gold ball
H. Big plastic ball
3. Method Used:
1) Place the steel ball on the drop box.
2) Set the timer to “Time: Two Gates” mode.
3) Measure the distance between the bottom of the ball and the plate and record in table
4) Release the ball using the timer switch and record the time it takes to fall.
5) Change the distance and repeat step (4) until table is complete
6) Repeat steps (3) – (5) with solid golf ball
7) Repeat steps (3) – (5) with big plastic ball
4. Diagram:
Time-Of-Flight
Accessory
Time-Of-Flight
Accessory
Timer Switch
Timer Switch
Timer
Timer
DROPBOX
DROPBOX
5. Data:
STEEL BALL
Table 1: Determining the acceleration of the steel ball dropped
Distance (M) | Time(S) | Time(S2) |
0.80m | 0.4074s | 0.166s2 |
0.75m | 0.3969s | 0.1575s2 |
0.70m | 0.3809s | 0.1451s2 |
0.65m | 0.3692s | 0.1363s2 |
0.60m | 0.3546s | 0.1257s2 |
0.55m | 0.3438s | 0.1182s2 |
SOLID GOLF BALL
Table 2:...

...Free-FallLab Assignment Nishad Gothoskar Physics Online
Experimental Design: In order to design an experiment to measure free-fall acceleration, the researcher must construct a wooden tower with height 10 meters along with a trap door system to release a tennis ball from rest position. In this case, the researcher must measure the time the ball takes to free-fall from rest position to the ground. Using this info and the formula:
s=vit+ 12at2
s = 10 m
vi = 0 m/s
The researcher will find the time of fall and calculate the acceleration due to gravity. In this case with displacement being 10 meters, the expected time would be around1.4 s. Any differing results can be attributed to human error of timing as well as to air resistance (minimal).
Hypothesis: If the acceleration due to gravity is measured on Earth, Moon, and Mars, then the results will be different due to the fact that each planet and satellite has a different gravitational attraction since each has a different mass. The researcher believes that each of the values will differ with the largest acceleration being Earth and the smallest acceleration being the Moon. The researcher also predicts that their results will be comparable to given standards however error and uncontrollable factors including air resistance will alter results slightly.
Data & Analysis:
Earth:...

...and divide that with 9.82 (the average acceleration). After you take that result and multiply by 100.
0.10/9.82= 0.01018
0.01018 X 100 = 1.018 %
Graphs:
On next page.
Preliminary questions:
1. The additional information I need to determine the average speed of the Picket Fence as it moves through the Photogate is the amount of time need to go through it.
2. If an object is moving with constant acceleration, the shape of its velocity vs. time graph is a linear line.
3. The initial velocity of an object does not have anything to do with its acceleration due to gravity.
Analysis Questions:
1. The minimum, maximum, and average values for acceleration are in the data table.
2. The shape of the position vs. time graph for freefall would be a parabola because the velocity increases.
3. The shape of the velocity vs. time graph is a linear line. It is not a parabolic shape like that of the position vs. time graph because the acceleration is constant which means a straight line of the velocity vs. time graph.
4. Results in table
5. Percentages in the data tables.
6. The accepted value for g (gravity) is 9.8 m/s/s, and all the calculated accelerations from the first six runs are within.
7. Prediction for acceleration vs. time graph in graphs.
8. The average acceleration is the same with the acceleration vs. time graph because the slopes are 0.
Extensions:
1. G (acceleration) is determined in the data charts above.
2. Dropping...

...Picket Fence FreeFall
DATA TABLE
|Trial | 1 |2 |3 |4 |5 |
|Slope(m/sec2) |9.81 |9.61 |9.87 |9.76 |9.82 |
Analysis
1.
| |Minimum |Maximum |Average |
|Acceleration(m/sec2) |9.61 |9.87 |9.74 |
The position-time graph is a parabola.It has an increasing and positive slope.
3.The velocity vs. time graph is linear. The slope of line in velocity-time graph is dependent on the position-time graph. The slope of the distance vs. time graph at a
point is equal to the velocity.
V=9.74t+0.558 m/s
5.g=9.74±0.1 m/s2
6.[pic]
7.The accepted value fall within the range of our values.
[pic]
8.The value of the acceleration obtained from step 12 is almost the same as the accepted value for the acceleration of gravity.
[pic]
9.Initial velocity does not affect the acceleration of gravity. Because the slope of the graph is the acceleration. The acceleration of an object which you throw is the same as an object that is dropped by itself.
Sources of Error:
In the Picket Fence FreeFall experiment,we prove the...

...2/12/2013
Lab 1430
FreeFall
The difference of the outline procedure and the actual procedure is the use of the brass screw was not working in our set up. So we had to improvise and use our hand as the release mechanism as what we had seen this didn’t make difference from others results.
Drop Distance 50(cm)
Drop
Time(sec)
1
.306179
2
.310800
3
.304614
4
.311203
5
.298986
Drop Distance 100(cm)
Drop
Time(sec)
1
.419258
2
.417368
3
.420589
4
.416400
5
.430646
Drop Distance 150(cm)
Drop
Time(sec)
1
.516188
2
.504206
3
.495936
4
.515523
5
.502310
Drop Distance 200(cm)
Drop
Time (sec)
1
.623696
2
.616600
3
.618880
4
.628058
5
.602976
H(m)
.093756
.5
.177116
1
.256879
1.5
.38183
2
Stander Deviation
H(m)
Deviation
.5
.3063564
1
.4208522
1.5
.5068326
2
.618042
Equation Used
Percentage Error = (Abs(measured value-calculated value)/calculate value)*100%
What we can see from the results and the theory of the idea of the ball dropping is that the time it takes form 1 meter and 2 meters aren’t twice as large. What we can see is that it is an exponential increase in a small amount. In theory this is proven that the time is not double just because the distance is double. And that the acceleration without air resistance will always be constant -9.81 m/s squared
In question number 2 by ignoring air resistance would this tend to cause the measures value of g in this experiment to be larger or smaller. This question may be miss leading...

...Free-Fall Acceleration Laboratory Help Sheet
* Design an experiment :-UNIT 2 Lesson 3 page 1
* Hypotheses UNIT 2 Lesson 3 page 2
How do you think the freefall acceleration will be different on Earth, Moon and Mars and why?
* Data collection and organization. UNIT 2 Lesson 3 page 3,4
EARTH
Time (s) | 0 | 0.2 | 0.4 | 0.6 | 0.8 | 1.0 |
Distance (m) | 0 | x | | | | |
Average Velocity m/s | 0 | A | B | | | |
Acceleration m/s/s | 0 | | C | | | |
Example to calculate average velocity A
A= x - 0 (change in distance)
0.2 - 0 (change in time)
Repeat for all other velocities
Example to calculate acceleration C
C = Velocity B - Velocity A (change in velocity)
0.4 - 0.2 (change in time)
Repeat for other accelerations
MOON
Time (s) | 0 | 0.4 | 0.8 | 1.2 | 1.6 | 2.0 |
Distance (m) | 0 | | | | | |
Average Velocity m/s | 0 | | | | | |
Acceleration m/s/s | | | | | | |
MARS
Time (s) | 0 | 0.3 | 0.6 | 0.9 | 1.2 | 1.5 |
Distance (m) | 0 | | | | | |
Average Velocity m/s | 0 | | | | | |
Acceleration m/s/s | | | | | | |
* Constructing Graphs UNIT 2 Lesson 3 page 4
You will create 9 graphs. 3 graphs for each environment. You may use Microsoft Excel to create the graphs or regular graph paper (no lined or plain paper). Use a pencil for...

...Measurements and Error Analysis, #1, Chris Baca
Discussion of differences
The purpose of this experiment is to understand why we have variances in measurements and how to reduce the variances. When taking a measurement there are multiple factors that affect its value. The more the measurement is taken the measurements average is closer to the actual value. Other factors include the instruments calibration, cleanliness of the inside of the measuring arms and human error in reading the measurements off of the measuring devices. For this experiment, we followed the procedures as indicated in the lab manual.
Data
Copper Rod Measurements
Trial
1
2
3
4
Length (m)
0.601
0.6
0.601
0.6
Diameter (caliper-m)
0.0006
0.00065
0.0006
0.0006
Diameter (Vernier-m)
0.0006315
0.0006325
0.000633
0.0006325
Mass (kg)
0.16875
0.16875
0.16865
0.1688
Figure 1. Copper rod measurements
Trial
5
6
7
8
9
10
Length (m)
0.6
0.601
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.601
Diameter (caliper-m)
0.00065
0.0006
0.00059
0.0006
0.0006
0.00059
Diameter (Vernier-m))
0.000634
0.000637
0.000637
0.000638
0.000636
0.000637
Mass (kg)
0.16876
0.1687
0.16873
0.16875
0.16878
0.16876
Figure 2. Copper rod measurements continued
Equations
, ,
Calculations
Average and Standard Deviation of Copper Rod Measurements
Average
Standard Deviation
Length (m)
0.6004
0.022509257
Diameter (caliper-m)
0.00608...

...Sample Formal Laboratory Report for Physics on the Picket Fence Lab (CP) without the parachute
Purpose:
The purpose of this experiment is to verify the acceleration due to gravity using the picket fence with a photogate, LabPro and LoggerPro software by measuring it with a precision of 0.5% or better.
Theory:
All objects, regardless of mass, fall with the same acceleration due to gravity assuming that there is no air resistance. Objects thrown upward or downward and those released from rest are falling freely once they are released. Any freely falling object experiences acceleration directed downward, regardless of the direction of its motion at any instant. The symbol “g” is used for this special acceleration at the Earth’s surface. The value of g is approximately 9.8 m/sec2. Since we are neglecting air friction and assuming that the freefall acceleration is constant, the motion of a freely falling object is equivalent to motion in one dimension under constant acceleration. Therefore the constant acceleration equations can be applied. Objects falling downward only under the influence of gravity can be graphically analyzed with a displacement versus time graph shown by a parabolic curve described in graph 1. This graph shows that as the object is falling, the displacement it travels each second is greater than the prior second. This graph can be mathematically illustrated by the equation
which...

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