Introduction
During this experimentation an observation of gravity will be evaluated using instrument to calculate its effect. Due to the minimum height presented the calculations may present a conundrum, however, the determination will be made against various heights. After accomplishing the various protocols needed to receive measurements, the challenge will be taken into an exponential dilemma, in order to receive precise calculations. Procedure

The methodology to this experimentation is quite simple:
The primary objective under the circumstances of this project is to assemble the free fall apparatus. By doing so it would allocate the ball bearing and landing pad so that it may give us calculations for our gravitational measurements.

Afterwards setup a certain distance between the top of the landing pad and bottom of the ball bearing. Then ascend the distance by a specific amount. During my team’s experimentation, we escalated by 5 centimeters. Starting from point 20cm up to 95cm.

Afterwards, commence setup for the ball bearing. Push the pin at the top of the screw set, so that the ball is nested in the hole of the flexible metal strip, between the brass contact and the strip.

When the ball bearing is in place, lightly tighten the thumb screw to lock the ball in place. Make sure the landing pad is beneath the predicted landing area.
Set the initial distance so that the ball falls to recommend tabular values from the landing pad to the bottom of the ball with a meter stick. Record the actual distance in centimeters.
When ready to calculate untwist the thumb screw to release the ball bearing. Record the time measurements, and repeat 3 times for each consecutive length.

...2/12/2013
Lab 1430
FreeFall
The difference of the outline procedure and the actual procedure is the use of the brass screw was not working in our set up. So we had to improvise and use our hand as the release mechanism as what we had seen this didn’t make difference from others results.
Drop Distance 50(cm)
Drop
Time(sec)
1
.306179
2
.310800
3
.304614
4
.311203
5
.298986
Drop Distance 100(cm)
Drop
Time(sec)
1
.419258
2
.417368
3
.420589
4
.416400
5
.430646
Drop Distance 150(cm)
Drop
Time(sec)
1
.516188
2
.504206
3
.495936
4
.515523
5
.502310
Drop Distance 200(cm)
Drop
Time (sec)
1
.623696
2
.616600
3
.618880
4
.628058
5
.602976
H(m)
.093756
.5
.177116
1
.256879
1.5
.38183
2
Stander Deviation
H(m)
Deviation
.5
.3063564
1
.4208522
1.5
.5068326
2
.618042
Equation Used
Percentage Error = (Abs(measured value-calculated value)/calculate value)*100%
What we can see from the results and the theory of the idea of the ball dropping is that the time it takes form 1 meter and 2 meters aren’t twice as large. What we can see is that it is an exponential increase in a small amount. In theory this is proven that the time is not double just because the distance is double. And that the acceleration without air resistance will always be constant -9.81 m/s squared
In question number 2 by ignoring air resistance would this tend to cause the measures value of g in this experiment to be larger or smaller. This question may be miss leading because in earth the...

...Sample Formal Laboratory Report for Physics on the Picket Fence Lab (CP) without the parachute
Purpose:
The purpose of this experiment is to verify the acceleration due to gravity using the picket fence with a photogate, LabPro and LoggerPro software by measuring it with a precision of 0.5% or better.
Theory:
All objects, regardless of mass, fall with the same acceleration due to gravity assuming that there is no air resistance. Objects thrown upward or downward and those released from rest are falling freely once they are released. Any freely falling object experiences acceleration directed downward, regardless of the direction of its motion at any instant. The symbol “g” is used for this special acceleration at the Earth’s surface. The value of g is approximately 9.8 m/sec2. Since we are neglecting air friction and assuming that the freefall acceleration is constant, the motion of a freely falling object is equivalent to motion in one dimension under constant acceleration. Therefore the constant acceleration equations can be applied. Objects falling downward only under the influence of gravity can be graphically analyzed with a displacement versus time graph shown by a parabolic curve described in graph 1. This graph shows that as the object is falling, the displacement it travels each second is greater than the prior second. This graph can be mathematically illustrated by the equation
which is the...

...Measuring the Acceleration of FreeFall
•Aim: To test the validity of the equation of motion and obtain a value for g
•Equipment: A ball, ruler, a stopwatch
•Principle: sf = si + ui*t + ½at2
•Process:
1. Time how long the ball takes to fall from a maximum possible height. Record your result.
2. Repeat the measurement multiple times in order to obtain a more accurate result.
3. Repeat the experiment for several different heights spread evenly throughout a range of heights.
Time/s
Height/m
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
Average T
0.6±0.05
0.39
0.35
0.41
0.34
0.36
0.37±0.04
0.8±0.05
0.42
0.44
0.42
0.41
0.39
0.42±0.03
1.0±0.05
0.43
0.49
0.49
0.43
0.47
0.46±0.03
1.2±0.05
0.48
0.50
0.48
0.52
0.50
0.50±0.02
1.5±0.05
0.59
0.53
0.60
0.54
0.57
0.57±0.04
2H
T2
1.2±0.1
0.14±0.03
1.6±0.1
0.18±0.03
2.0±0.1
0.21±0.03
2.4±0.1
0.25±0.02
3.0±0.1
0.32±0.04
•Analysis
Independent variable: Height
Dependant variable: Time taken to fall
Control variables: Shape, size, mass and material of the ball. The initial speed of the ball
si =o, ui =0, so h= 1/2gt2
The graph of 2H and t2 is a straight line, and the slope of the line is the value for g.
•Conclusion
g=9.32m/s2
•Error analysis
1. The air resistance works.
2. The reaction needs time.
Distance(m)
±0.005
Time (s)±0.01
1
2
3
4
5
0.6600
Distance(m)
±0.005
Average time (s)
Value of gravity
0.5000
0.44±0.07
1.0000
1.5000
2.0000...

...Picket Fence FreeFall
DATA TABLE
|Trial | 1 |2 |3 |4 |5 |
|Slope(m/sec2) |9.81 |9.61 |9.87 |9.76 |9.82 |
Analysis
1.
| |Minimum |Maximum |Average |
|Acceleration(m/sec2) |9.61 |9.87 |9.74 |
The position-time graph is a parabola.It has an increasing and positive slope.
3.The velocity vs. time graph is linear. The slope of line in velocity-time graph is dependent on the position-time graph. The slope of the distance vs. time graph at a
point is equal to the velocity.
V=9.74t+0.558 m/s
5.g=9.74±0.1 m/s2
6.[pic]
7.The accepted value fall within the range of our values.
[pic]
8.The value of the acceleration obtained from step 12 is almost the same as the accepted value for the acceleration of gravity.
[pic]
9.Initial velocity does not affect the acceleration of gravity. Because the slope of the graph is the acceleration. The acceleration of an object which you throw is the same as an object that is dropped by itself.
Sources of Error:
In the Picket Fence FreeFall experiment,we prove the...

...Measurements and Error Analysis, #1, Chris Baca
Discussion of differences
The purpose of this experiment is to understand why we have variances in measurements and how to reduce the variances. When taking a measurement there are multiple factors that affect its value. The more the measurement is taken the measurements average is closer to the actual value. Other factors include the instruments calibration, cleanliness of the inside of the measuring arms and human error in reading the measurements off of the measuring devices. For this experiment, we followed the procedures as indicated in the lab manual.
Data
Copper Rod Measurements
Trial
1
2
3
4
Length (m)
0.601
0.6
0.601
0.6
Diameter (caliper-m)
0.0006
0.00065
0.0006
0.0006
Diameter (Vernier-m)
0.0006315
0.0006325
0.000633
0.0006325
Mass (kg)
0.16875
0.16875
0.16865
0.1688
Figure 1. Copper rod measurements
Trial
5
6
7
8
9
10
Length (m)
0.6
0.601
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.601
Diameter (caliper-m)
0.00065
0.0006
0.00059
0.0006
0.0006
0.00059
Diameter (Vernier-m))
0.000634
0.000637
0.000637
0.000638
0.000636
0.000637
Mass (kg)
0.16876
0.1687
0.16873
0.16875
0.16878
0.16876
Figure 2. Copper rod measurements continued
Equations
, ,
Calculations
Average and Standard Deviation of Copper Rod Measurements
Average
Standard Deviation
Length (m)
0.6004
0.022509257
Diameter (caliper-m)
0.00608
0.002392697...

...Measurement of Free-Fall Acceleration
Introduction
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), the man first accredited with the correct notion of free-fall with uniform acceleration, stated that 'if one were to remove entirely the resistance of the medium, all materials would descend with equal speed.' Today, this statement holds true for all objects in free-fall near the Earth's surface. The purpose of this experiment is to verify Galileo's assertion that acceleration is constant. In addition, the magnitude of acceleration will be calculated.
Theory
By definition, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with respect to time. Instantaneous acceleration is the derivative of velocity with respect to time.
a(t) = dv / dt.
Average acceleration is the change in velocity during a time interval, Dt, divided by the length of that interval,
aave = Dv / Dt.
In this experiment, average acceleration of gravity will be determined by measuring the change in position of a falling object at regularly timed intervals. With this, average velocities for these intervals will be calculated. A graph of the average velocities versus time should give a straight line whose slope is the acceleration of gravity (g).
Apparatus
To determine the acceleration of gravity the Behr apparatus will be used. The device consists of two vertical conducting wires, a thin strip of paper held between them, and a metal-girdled...

...FreeFall Lab
Natalie Soria
Lab Partners:
Ryan Michaely
Iqra Haji
Yan Huang
1. Purpose:
The purpose of this experiment is to determine the acceleration due to gravity by observing the motion of a free falling object.
2. Equipment Used:
A. Timer Switch
B. Time-of-Flight Accessory
C. Control Box
D. AC adapter
E. Drop Box
F. Steel ball
G. Solid gold ball
H. Big plastic ball
3. Method Used:
1) Place the steel ball on the drop box.
2) Set the timer to “Time: Two Gates” mode.
3) Measure the distance between the bottom of the ball and the plate and record in table
4) Release the ball using the timer switch and record the time it takes to fall.
5) Change the distance and repeat step (4) until table is complete
6) Repeat steps (3) – (5) with solid golf ball
7) Repeat steps (3) – (5) with big plastic ball
4. Diagram:
Time-Of-Flight
Accessory
Time-Of-Flight
Accessory
Timer Switch
Timer Switch
Timer
Timer
DROPBOX
DROPBOX
5. Data:
STEEL BALL
Table 1: Determining the acceleration of the steel ball dropped
Distance (M) | Time(S) | Time(S2) |
0.80m | 0.4074s | 0.166s2 |
0.75m | 0.3969s | 0.1575s2 |
0.70m | 0.3809s | 0.1451s2 |
0.65m | 0.3692s | 0.1363s2 |
0.60m | 0.3546s | 0.1257s2 |
0.55m | 0.3438s | 0.1182s2 |
SOLID GOLF BALL
Table 2: Determining the acceleration of the...

...In Newtonian physics, freefall is any motion of a body where its weight is the only force acting upon it. In the context of general relativity, where gravitation is reduced to a space-time curvature, a body in freefall has no force acting on it and it moves along a geodesic. The present article only concerns itself with freefall in the Newtonian domain.
An object in the technical sense offreefall may not necessarily be falling down in the usual sense of the term. An object moving upwards would not normally be considered to be falling, but if it is subject to the force of gravity only, it is said to be in freefall. The moon is thus in freefall.
In a uniform gravitational field, in the absence of any other forces, gravitation acts on each part of the body equally and this is weightlessness, a condition that also occurs when the gravitational field is zero (such as when far away from any gravitating body). A body in freefall experiences "0-g".
The term "freefall" is often used more loosely than in the strict sense defined above. Thus, falling through an atmosphere without a deployed parachute, or lifting device, is also often referred to as freefall. The aerodynamic drag forces in such situations prevent them...

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