Free and Bound Morpheme

Topics: Affix, Inflection, Suffix Pages: 6 (1254 words) Published: May 16, 2013

A. Background Of Study
There are some opinions about Derivation:
Steven Pinker, Words and Rules: The Ingredients of language. Basic Books, 1999 Morphology may be divided into derivation rules that form a new word out of old word, like duck feathers and unkissable and inflection rules that modify a word to fit its role in a sentence, what language teachers call conjugation and declension. David Crystal, How Language Works. Overlook Press, 2005 Derivational morphology studies the principles governing the construction of new words, without reference to the specific grammatical role a word might play in a sentence. In the formation of drinkable from drink, or disinfect from infect, for example, we see the formation of new words, each with its own grammatical properties. From the definition of Derivation above, we can conclude that Derivation is the process of forming a new word by addition affix (prefix or suffix) to form a new word with a different meaning.


1. Definition of Derivation
Derivational morphology changes the meaning of words by applying derivations, where derivation means the combination of a word stem with a morpheme, which forms a new word, which is often of a different class. For example, develop becomes development, developmental or redevelop. In linguistics, derivation is the process of forming a new word on the basis of an existing word, e.g. happi-ness and un-happy from happy, or determination from determine. Derivation stands in contrast to the process of inflection, which uses another kind of affix in order to form grammatical variants of the same word, as with determine/determine-s/ determin -ing/ determin -ed. Generally speaking, inflection applies to all members of a part of speech (e.g., every English verb has a past-tense form), while derivation applies only to some members of a part of speech (e.g., the nominalizing suffix -ity can be used with the adjectives modern and dense, but not with open or strong). From the definition of Derivation above, we can conclude that Derivation is the process of forming a new word by addition suffix (prefix or suffix) to form a new word with a different meaning. Example of Derivation:

Noun| Threefold| Three root + Fold suffix|
Verb| Enclose| En prefix + Close root|
Adjective| Interchangeable| Inter prefix + Change root + Able suffix| Adverb| Retell| Re Prefix + Tell root|

2. Derivational patterns

a. Derivational Suffix
Derivational suffixes, on the other hand, usually change both the meaning and the word class; that is, a suffix is often added to a verb or adjective to form a new noun with a different meaning: * adjective--dark: darkness

* verb--agree: agreement
* noun--friend: friendship"
Examples of English derivational patterns and their suffixes: adjective-to-noun| -ness (slow → slowness)|
adjective-to-verb| -ise (modern → modernise) -ize (archaic → archaicize)| adjective-to-adjective| -ish (red → reddish)|
adjective-to-adverb| -ly (personal → personally)|
noun-to-adjective| -al (recreation → recreational)|
noun-to-verb| -fy (glory → glorify)|
verb-to-adjective| -able (drink → drinkable)|
verb-to-noun (abstract)| -ance (deliver → deliverance)| verb-to-noun (concrete)| -er (write → writer)|

b. Derivational Prefix
Derivational prefixes do not normally alter the word class of the base word; that is, a prefix is added to a noun to form a new noun with a different meaning: For example:
a. patient: outpatient
b. group: subgroup
c. trial: retrial
d. write: re-write
e. do: undo

c. Derivational Affix
Although derivational affixes do not necessarily alter the syntactic category, they do change the meaning of the base. For example
a. modern → modernize
b. white→ whiteness

3. Kinds of Derivation
There are kinds of derivation:
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