The English department
The fall semester 2012
Course in Contrastive analysis
A research on what is Contrastive analysis
Academically supervised by
Dr. Habeeb Alramaash
Table of contents
1- What is Contrastive Analysis? Page 3
2- Types of Contrastive analysis Page 4-5
3- History and development of contrastive Page 5-6
4- Main assumptions of contrastive analysis Page 6
What is contrastive analysis?
Beginning with the definition of the word contrast; contrast means to compare, actually, it is quite similar to the word CONFRONT. Contrastive analysis definition according to www.sil.org C.A is an inductive investigative approach based on the distinctive elements in a language. According to SIL.ORG definition, contrastive analysis is about distinctive elements in A LANGUAGE, and then what does it compare in a language? The answer would be provided for this question as we move along with the C.A. The other definition according to en.wikipedia.orgContrastive analysis is the systematic study of a pair of languages with a view to identifying their structural differences and similarities.As the definition of WIKIPEDIA is presented, C.A deals with the systematic study of A PAIR OF LANGUAGES. Those two definitions are either correct or one of them is incorrect. In fact, the most prominent definition that, most linguists agreed on, is that Contrastive analysis is based on the comparison between two or, more languages to bring out the differences as well as the similarities to help the learner of the second language or, the foreign language predict the L1 or, the Native language interference on the L2 or TL. On other words, contrastive analysis helps learners of the second language or the foreign language to predict the learning problems of the second language or, the target language. According to C. James, contrastive analysis is viewed as an interlingualistic, bidirectional phenomenon which is concerned with both the form and function of a language. As such, contrastive analysis must view language psycho linguistically and, socio linguistically and socio linguistically as a system to be both described and acquired. Due to the need for a psychological component in the analysis, the notion of transfer is discussed. Setting a theoretical framework, the book takes a micro linguistic approach and in concentrating on syntax examines the effectof contrastive analysis of alternative descriptive models- structuralist, transformational- generative, and case grammar. The models are used as means to isolate general grammatical categories of unit, structure, class, and system applicable to all descriptive frameworks. Principles for the practical application of contrastive analysis at various language levels are also presented. Addressing the contextual side of language, the book adopts macrolinguistic approach in a discussion of pragmatics, text analysis, conversational analysis is presented as a useful contributor to studies in interlanguage and predictability of learner difficulty. Combined with error analysis, contrastive analysis is a useful tool for educators interested in adjusting their teaching to their students knowledge. Types of contrastive analysis
Two types of contrastive analysis were later on emerged, one that deals with languages theoretically and, the other by the application of the linguistic...