Fredrick Taylor

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Elements of Scientific Management
The techniques which Taylorregarded as its essential elements or features may beclassified as under: 1. Scientific Task and Rate-Setting (work study): Work study may be defined as the systematic, objective and critical examination of all the factors governing the operational efficiency of any specified activity in order to effect improvement. Work study includes. (a) Methods Study: The management should try to ensure that the plant is laid out in the best manner and is equipped with the best tools and machinery. The possibilities of eliminating or combining certain operations may be studied. (b) Motion Study: It is a study of the movement, of an operator (or even of a machine) in performing an operation with the purpose of eliminating useless motions. (c) Time Study (work measurement): The basic purpose of time study is to determine the proper time for performing the operation. Such study may be conducted after the motion study. Both time study and motion study helpin determining the best method of doing a job and the standard time allowed for it. (d) Fatigue Study: If, a standard task is set without providing for measures to eliminate fatigue, it may either be beyond the workers or the workers mayover strain themselves to attain it. It is necessary, therefore, to regulate the working hours and provide for rest pauses at scientifically determined intervals. (e) Rate-setting: Taylor recommended the differential piece wage system, under which workers performing the standard task within prescribed time are paid a much higher rate per unit than inefficient workers who are not able to come up to the standard set. 2. Planning the Task: Having set the task which anaverage worker must strive to perform to get wages at the higher piece-rate, necessary steps have to be taken to plan the productionthoroughly so that there is no bottle neck and the workgoes on systematically. 3. Selection and Training : Scientific Management requires a...
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