By: Zuri Trujillo
Oil language family:
* Champenois or Champenois.
* Poitevin and Saintongeais.
Occitan language (also Lenga d'òc, Langue d'oc):
Franco-Provençal also named Arpitan:
Italian languages :
* Corsican (Corsu).
* Ligurian language.
* Catalan (Northern Catalan).
* Alsatian (Elsässerdeutsch).
French Flemish: West Flemish dialect of Dutch.
* Lorraine Franconian aka Lothringen.
* Celtic language:
* Breton aka Brita or Brezhoneg.
* Language isolate:
* Basque aka Euskara.
The national flag of France (known in French as drape au tricolored, drape François, and in military parlance, les couleurs) is a tricolor featuring three vertical bands colored royal blue (hoist side), white, and red. Blue and red are the traditional colors of Paris, used on the city's coat of arms. Blue is identified with Saint Martin, red with Saint Denis. At the storming of the Bastille in 1789, the Paris militia wore blue and red cockades on their hats. White had long featured prominently on French flags and is described as the "ancient French color" by Lafayette. White was added to the "revolutionary" colors of the militia cockade to "nationalize" the design, thus creating the tricolor cockade. Although Lafayette identified the white stripe with the nation, other accounts identify it with the monarchy.
La Marseillaise is the national anthem of France. The song, originally titled "Chant de guerre pour l'Armée du Rhin" (War Song for the Army of the Rhine) was written and composed by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle in 1792. The French National Convention adopted it as the Republic's anthem in 1795. The name of the song is due to first being sung on the streets by volunteers from Marseille. The song is the first example of the "European march" anthemic style. The anthem's evocative melody and lyrics have led to its widespread use as a song of revolution and its incorporation into many pieces of classical and popular music (see below: Musical quotations). Patron Saints
Joan of Arc
Martin of Tours
Notre Dame of Chartres
Our Lady of LaSallette
Our Lady of Lourdes
Our Lady of Pontmain
Our Lady of the Assumption
Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal
Therese of Lisieux
Catholicism is the primary religion in France. During the Ancien Régime, France had traditionally been considered the Church's eldest daughter, and the King of France always maintained close links to the Pope. This led to various conflicts, in particular during the Reformation between Catholics and Huguenots (French Calvinists). Although a strong Protestant population resided in France, they were persecuted by the state. These wars continued throughout the 16th century, with the notorious 1572 St. Bartholomew's Day massacre as its bleakest moment, until the 1598 Edict of Nantes issued by Henry IV. For the first time, Huguenots were considered by the state as more than mere schismatics and heretics. The Edict of Nantes thus opened a path for secularism and tolerance. In offering general freedom of conscience to individuals, the edict offered many specific concessions to the Protestants: amnesty, the reinstatement of their civil rights, including the right to work in any field or for the State and to bring grievances directly to the king. Food
The baguette, a long, thin loaf of crusty bread, is the most important part of any...