From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
The culture of France and of the French people has been shaped by geography, by profound historical events, and by foreign and internal forces and groups. France, and in particular Paris, has played an important role as a center of high culture and of decorative arts since the seventeenth century, first in Europe, and from the nineteenth century on, world wide. From the late nineteenth century, France has also played an important role in cinema, fashion and cuisine. The importance of French culture has waxed and waned over the centuries, depending on its economic, political and military importance. French culture today is marked both by great regional and socioeconomic differences and by strong unifying tendencies. Contents[hide] * 1 Problems in defining "French" culture * 2 Language * 3 Religion * 3.1 Catholicism * 3.2 Islam * 3.3 Judaism * 3.4 Buddhism * 3.5 Cults and new religious movements * 4 Regional customs and traditions * 5 Other specific communities * 6 Social class * 7 Families and romantic relationships * 7.1 Household structure * 8 Role of the State * 8.1 Education * 8.2 Minister of Culture * 8.3 Académie française * 8.4 Military service * 8.5 Labor and employment policy * 8.6 Healthcare and social welfare * 9 Food and lifestyle * 9.1 Food and alcohol * 9.2 Tobacco and drugs * 9.3 Sports and hobbies * 9.4 Fashion * 9.5 Pets * 10 Media and art * 10.1 Art and museums * 10.2 Music * 10.3 Cinema * 10.4 Television * 10.5 Books, newspapers and magazines * 11 Architecture and housing * 12 Transportation * 13 Holidays * 14 Conventions * 15 See also * 16 References * 17 Notes * 18 External links|  Problems in defining "French" culture
Whether in France, Europe or in general, "culture" consists of beliefs and values learned through the socialization process as well as material artifacts. Culture guides the social interactions between members of society and influences the personal beliefs and values that shape a person's perception of their environment: "Culture is the learned set of beliefs, values, norms and material goods shared by group members. Culture consists of everything we learn in groups during the life course-from infancy to old age." The conception of "French" culture however poses certain difficulties and presupposes a series of assumptions about what precisely the expression "French" means. Whereas American culture posits the notion of the "melting-pot" and cultural diversity, the expression "French culture" tends to refer implicitly to a specific geographical entity (as, say, "metropolitan France", generally excluding its overseas departments) or to a specific historico-sociological group defined by ethnicity, language, religion and geography. The realities of "Frenchness" however, are extremely complicated. Even before the late nineteenth century, "metropolitan France" was largely a patchwork of local customs and regional differences that the unifying aims of the Ancien Régime and the French Revolution had only begun to work against, and today's France remains a nation of numerous indigenous and foreign languages, of multiple ethnicities and religions, and of regional diversity that includes French citizens in Corsica, Guadeloupe, Martinique and elsewhere around the globe. The creation of some sort of typical or shared French culture or "cultural identity", despite this vast heterogeneity, is the result of powerful internal forces — such as the French educational system, mandatory military service, state linguistic and cultural policies — and by profound historic events — such as the Franco-Prussian war and the two World Wars — which have forged a sense of national identity over the last 200 years. However, despite these unifying forces, France today still...