Fractional Distillation Process

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HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT (CBB 2012)

TITLE:
FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION PROCESS


CONTENTS

1.Title………………………………………………………………………….1 2.Summary…………………………………………………………………….3 3.Introduction of Case Study…………….…………………………………….4 4.Risk Scenario Development…….…………………………………………...5 5.Justification of Fault Tree Analysis…………………………………………6 6.Procedures of Fault Tree Analysis…………………………………………..7 7.Fault Tree Analysis…………………………………………………………8 8.Possible Risk Associated with Hazards….………………………………...11 9.Accident Consequences…………………………………………………….13 10.Method to Control the Risk………………………………………………...15 11.Solution to Minimize the Risk……………………………………………..17 12.Conclusion………………………………………………………………….18 13.References………………………………………………………………….19


SUMMARY
Crude oil is one the most important non-renewable sources on Earth. Demand for this black viscous liquid is growing every day in this era if modern technology. Electricity, vehicles and synthetics are among the major consumers of petroleum fluids or crude oil. Crude oil could be referred to as the ‘black gold’ due to its expensive price and complicated production process. Unlike gold, crude oil naturally is useless in its primary form. A process called fractional distillation or petroleum refining need to be carried out onto the crude oil to separate it into various components which later could be used to supply electricity to residential houses or mobilizing vehicles. Fractional distillation or petroleum refining is the process of separating crude oil into different components based on their hydrocarbon chains. It is one of the most important major processes in the oil and gas industry. Basically there are two types of fractional distillation which are in laboratory fractional distillation and industrial fractional distillation. Both have different method of conducting the process but utilize the similar concept. Industrial petroleum refining involves the separation of different length of hydrocarbon chain into specific refinery column which will produce products such as petrol, naphtha, kerosene and diesel. However petroleum refining has its own hazards and risk. It is highly flammable and could cause a major catastrophe to the plant. The purpose of this report is to study a case scenario involving the fractional distillation process and its potential hazards and risks. INTRODUCTION

In 1859, the petroleum industry began with the successful drilling of the first commercial oil well and the opening of the first refinery to process the crude into kerosene. The development of petroleum refining from simple distillation to today's sophisticated processes has created a need for health and safety management procedures and safe work practices. Refining is the processing of one complex mixture of hydrocarbons into a number of other complex mixtures of hydrocarbons. In response to changing consumer’s demand for better and different products, petroleum refining has evolved continuously. The original requirement was to produce kerosene as a cheaper and better source of light than whale oil. The production of gasoline and diesel fuels resulted from development of the internal combustion engine. Nowadays, refineries produce a variety of products. It was soon discovered that high quality lubricating oils could be produced by distilling petroleum under vacuum. For the next 30 years kerosene was the product consumers wanted due to two significant events, first is invention of the electric light decreased the demand for kerosene and second, invention of the internal combustion engine which created a demand for diesel fuel and gasoline, also known as naphtha. Most of our modern lifestyle depends on oil. The largest oil refinery is the Paraguana Refining Complex in Venezuela, which can process 940,000 barrels of oil each day. Samuel M. Kier was the first person to refine crude oil and he used the flammable oil produced by his salt wells to light his salt works at night. The burning crude...
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