Four Theoretical Approaches to Metaphysics—Dualism, Materialism, Idealism, and Alternative Views

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Resource: Writing Wizard at the Center for Writing Excellence; Chapter Six of Philosophy: The Power of Ideas

Four theoretical approaches to metaphysics—Dualism, Materialism, Idealism, and Alternative Views (i.e., double aspect theory)—are competing for the right to claim that they are the correct metaphysical view.

Select one of these theories and construct the strongest possible argument on its behalf in an essay of 700-1400 words.

In your paper, acknowledge and describe the other positions, but present convincing evidence as to why your position is superior. Offer refutations of the other theories.

Include at least one direct quotation from the text.

There are four theoretical approaches to the metaphysics and they include Dualism and the theory that what exists on can do so on two levels the physical or the mental. The next approach is Materialism which theorizes that everything exists on a physical level. Then there is the Idealism approach which states that everything that exists is mental or spiritual. Finally, there is Alternative Views which theorizes that what exists in neither mental nor spiritual but believed that what exists is both, which means that what exists is neutral.

In the Materialism theory of metaphysics it is said that everything is made of some kind of structure that are now called atoms. These atoms are governed entirely by physical laws and are thought to make up everything that we know and see. There were and are still many men in the scientific community that feel this way, but the most pronounced one was named Thomas Hobbes. Hobbes implied “clearly that all things are made of material particles and that all change reduces to motion.” (cite) His theory states that everything is matter in motion to include an individual’s thought process. Hobbes goes into detail about how this process works and called it perception or sense. His way of describing it is the fact that things have different properties and that...
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