Citation Guide: APA
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2010)
Copies are available at SFU library Call number: BF 76.7 P83 2010 You might want to buy your own copy at the SFU bookstore
This guide is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. and
provides only selected citation examples for common types of sources. For more detailed information please consult a print copy of the style manual. Want help keeping track of your references/citations and formatting your reference lists? Consider using RefWorks – free for all students, faculty, alumni and staff. General Notes on APA Style
APA requires that the entire paper be double‐spaced, including all the lines in the reference list. Number all pages consecutively, beginning with the title page, in Arabic numerals (E.g., 4, not IV) in the upper right‐hand corner (Rule 8.03, p. 230). You need to cite and document any sources that you have consulted, even if you presented the ideas from these sources in your own words. You need to cite: o to identify other people's ideas and information used within your essay. o to inform the reader of your paper where they should look if they want to find the same. sources A citation must appear in two places in your essay: o in the body of your text (“in‐text citations”). o in the reference list (at the end of your paper). To introduce other people's ideas in text, use the following examples: Richardson argues, refers to, explains, hypothesizes, compares, concludes; As Littlewood and Sherwin demonstrated, proved… etc. Spelling: Merriam‐Webster's Collegiate Dictionary is the standard spelling reference for APA journals and books (Rule 4.12, p. 96). Capitalize all major words in titles of books and articles within the body of the paper (Rule 4.15, p.101). E.g. o In his book, Greek Political Thought (2006), Balot argues that ... o The criticism of the article, "The Politics of Paraliterary Criticism" ... o NOTE: In reference lists, however, capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle (after a colon or em dash) and proper nouns. When quoting from print sources or online articles, give the author, year, and page number in parentheses (Rules 6.03, pp.170‐171). For example: o Mooney (2000) found that ..."direct_quotation" (p. 276). 1
Reference in Text
o "Direct_quotation"... (Walker, 2000, p. 135). If the quotation is over 40 words, you must start the quotation on a new line, indent the quotation about ½ an inch, and omit the quotation marks (Rule 6.03, p. 171). Prince Edward Island is a curved slice of land from three to thirty-five miles wide and about one hundred and twenty miles long, lying along the southern rim of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and separated from the mainland of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia by the narrow waters of Northumberland Strait (Ives, 1999, p. 1). When paraphrasing from a source, or when referring to an idea contained in another work, you are encouraged to provide a page number (Rule 6.04 p. 171). Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. In this case, use paragraph numbers preceded by the abbreviation 'para.' (Rule 6.05 pp. 171‐172). For example: (Johnson, 2003, para. 5). If a source contains neither page nor paragraph numbers, cite the heading (shorten the heading if it is long) (Rule 6.05 pp. 171‐172). If there is no date of publication, use the abbreviation (n.d.). List two or more works by different authors who are cited within the same parentheses in alphabetical order by the first author's surname, e.g. (Anderson, 1980; Fowers & Powell, 1993; Simonetti, 1998) (Rule 6.16 p. 177).
In APA, list of sources at the end of the paper (bibliography) is called the reference list. The ...