For reasons unknown four regions between 5000 and 2000 B.C.E rapidly expanded their land and changed at a quicker pace than other regions. They all had better agriculture, technology, development of state power and construction of cities. These rivers were the Nile in Egypt, the valley of the Indus River, which is now Pakistan, Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, which is today known as Iraq and the Yellow River in China. These four regions although grew faster they also shared similarities and differences between ecology and their floodplains. As well as their society about settlement and labor and their involvement with politics. Lastly all their different cultures they brought to the area. However they all had one ambition to change nature and have it benefit mankind.
First the four rivers all had a gradually warming and drying climate. Also dry soils and the reliance on seasonally flooding rivers and irrigation. Egypt had an advantage, in the delta region it supply all the things a farmer would need in the irrigation land in the south. Egypt had an abundance of food for a large population due to the floods that provided as a food source to the fertile. Most people lived off wheat and barley. However, in the Indus Valley the river was much more powerful than the Nile. The Indus Valley flooded twice a year; this allowed farmers to grow two crops all year, wheat and barley. Just like Egypt the Indus Valley depended on those two food sources to survive. The floodplain was broader in the Indus Valley but no region was as rich as the Nile delta. Egypt wealth came from the fullness of its agriculture. The Indus Valley focus was on territorial expansion to feed their population. The Nile and Indus Valley spilled and receded to a predictable rhythm but the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers could flood anytime. They didn’t just have floods that took part in their environment they also had... [continues]
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