Foundations of Psychology

Topics: Psychology, Mind, Behaviorism Pages: 2 (755 words) Published: November 3, 2014
Foundations of Psychology London Wiggins PSY/300 August 20, 2013 Lorraine Eyre Foundations of Psychology Since the 1800s, psychology has evolved into multiple schools of thought. The major schools of thought are the psychodynamic perspective, the behaviorist perspective, the cognitive perspective, and the evolutionary perspective. These schools of thought focus on a different aspect that influences the individual. My objective is to cover the major schools of thought and psychology and examine the major underlying assumptions. This paper will also identify the primary biological foundations of psychology linked to behavior. Evolutionary Perspective The bases of the evolutionary perspective is that human behavioral tendencies originated from traits passed down from ancestors to survive and reproduce. Charles Darwin can be considered the proverbial brainchild of the evolutionary perspective. He did not invent the evolutionary perspective but his ideals were the basis of it. This school of thought basically states that the habits or tendencies that we have all stem from pass down traits that our ancestor used to survive in their respective environment. Darwins mechanism of natural selection is a driving force in the evolutionary perspective. Natural selection essentially is organisms gaining the ability to adapt to survive and the survival traits are passed on to their offspring. The organisms that adapt survive and the organisms that failed to adapt die off. Cognitive Perspective The cognitive perspective focuses on the way that we process information. How our individual minds stores and categorize the data that we receive every day. Most people understand things by relating them to what they already know. Example, for a person who do not know tools very well, if someone put a T8 screwdriver in front of that person they will most likely tell you it is a screwdriver. They may not know what kind of screwdriver it is specifically but from their experiences they know...
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