December, 3 2012
University of Phoenix
The Foundations of Psychology
Biology and culture intersect at Psychology, which in itself has many schools of thought. They are; Functionalism, structuralism, evolutionary, behavioral, psychodynamic, cognitive perspectives.
Two early schools of thought were structuralism and functionalism. However, they do differ. Structuralism was meant to uncover basic elements of consciousness through introspection, which can be described as self-observation. Introspection means look inside, and extrospection means look outward. Structuralism is to identify experiences and objects in basic terms. Functionalism attempted to explain psychological processes in terms of the role or function (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). "A paradigm defined is a system of theoretical assumptions employed by a scientific community that included models, metaphors, and methods" (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Clarify, even though psychology does lack in paradigm they make up in perspectives.
"Evolutionary perspective is defined as how nature selects traits that promote the perpetuation of one's genes" (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). There are traits passed to our children through genetics not evolution. The animals, which those who believe in evolution say evolved to be less conspicuous to their prey, and that we have adapted to our environment is farfetched.
Behavioral perspective is how we learn observable responses. IF we were to study external stimuli, which would result in depression for an individual we would be studying the behavioral perspective. The way a person learns to behave when their a child is based on the things surrounded by or what they were witness to as a child. We are not born with knowledge. As a baby they do not know fear, sadness, happiness, or anger. Those emotions have not been seen, heard or taught yet. However, the older you get, and the more they... [continues]
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