January 14, 2013
Dan Erickson Ph.D.
Foundations of Psychology
Psychology represents a science that studies mental process as well as behaviors. To best understand mental processes and behaviors four major psychological schools of thoughts are applied; psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive as well as evolutionary perspectives. Psychology has developed over years from having beginnings relating to philosophy to expanded studies of biopsychology. The four major theories contain distinct specific approaches to study human behaviors. The four major theories or perspectives also demonstrate similarities. Structuralism as well as functionalism represents two of the earliest perspectives building a foundation for psychology. This paper will identify as well as explain the four major schools of thought relating to psychology examine their major underlying assumptions as well as identify biological links to psychology. Structuralism and Fundamentalism
Structuralism scientific system utilized as a tool to analyze an adult mind from the earliest experiences from birth to adulthood and format these elements into simple definable components. Introspection was a valuable tool to make clinical observation in a controlled environment. Structuralism perspectives had strong influence in the development of psychology as well as provided separation from philosophy (Structuralism, 2013). Functionalism along with behaviorism developed shortly after. Functionalism provided a method to explain how the process of psychology helps people adapting to their environment (Kowalski & Westen, 2009, p.10).
Sigmund Freud, developed the perspective of psychodynamics as a dual theory to
Scientifically explain deviant behaviors to psychological events in which a person’s actions are linked to feelings as well as thoughts and how these mental episodes take place in the subconscious mind (Epstein, 1994). Psychoanalysis is a...