In order to be familiar with Montessri method first we should be familiar with Dr. Maria Montessori theory of “ Four Planes of Development ”. According to her there are different types of mentality in the phases of growth which are quite distinct one from another and they correspond with the phases of physical growth. Each of them can be considered as a level or plane of six years and a set of psychological characteristics can be observed in each level and the features of each plane are so different from one to another in a way that the passage from one plane to the next one can be considered as “rebirth”. It means there comes a time when one psychic personality ends and the other begins. Also each phase and plane consists of two subphases , which the first subphase –the first three years of each phase- is the rapid period for development and the second subphase is for consolidation and refinement.
The first plane of a child’s development goes from birth to six years of age at which the child develops his psyche and makes great physical changes; this phase can be divided to two subphases , from birth to three and from three to six. In the first three years the child has a unconscious absorbent mind, a kind of mind to which the adult can not approach; it means that adult can not have a direct influence on him and the child needs love and protection. From three to six the child is passing through a formative, creative and adaptive period. The child has a conscious absorbent mind and he has feelings towards the concrete and is willing to adult influence. He needs social life; He must be allowed to act and experience freely in order to achieve independence. At this stage the child is active and he should be allowed to explore his
environment through his own efforts till he masters his capabilities and institutes his independence. At this stage ,helping a child is not what he really needs; What he needs is to be free to try and experience, in this way not...
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