Robert Hamada combined the capital asset pricing model and the Modigliani and Miller capital structure theories to create the Hamada equation. There are two types of risk for a firm: financial and business. The business risk relates to the unlevered beta for the firm; the financial risk refers to the levered beta. An unlevered beta assumes zero debt. The Hamada equation illustrates that when a firm increases its debt, the financial leverage also increases the firm's risk and, in turn, its beta. Levered beta can be calculated based on the unlevered beta, tax rate, and debt-to-equity ratio.
Unlevered Beta: Beta levered/[1+(1-tax rate)x(D/E)]
Levered Beta: (D/E*(1-Tax Rate)+1)*Unlevered Beta
What Does Market Risk Premium Mean?
The difference between the expected return on a market portfolio and the risk-free rate.
What Does Weighted Average Cost Of Capital - WACC Mean?
A calculation of a firm's cost of capital in which each category of capital is proportionately weighted. All capital sources - common stock, preferred stock, bonds and any other long-term debt - are included in a WACC calculation. All else equal, the WACC of a firm increases as the beta and rate of return on equity increases, as an increase in WACC notes a decrease in valuation and a higher risk.
The WACC equation is the cost of each capital component multiplied by its proportional weight and then summing:
Re = cost of equity
Rd = cost of debt
E = market value of the firm's equity
D = market value of the firm's debt
V = E + D
E/V = percentage of financing that is equity
D/V = percentage of financing that is debt
Tc = corporate tax rate
Businesses often discount cash flows at WACC to determine the Net Present Value (NPV) of a project, using the formula:
NPV = Present Value (PV) of the Cash Flows discounted at WACC. What Does Cost Of Equity Mean?
In financial theory, the return that stockholders require for a company. The traditional formula for cost...
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