I. Promotion :
Refers to the entire process by which a company is brought into existence. It starts with the conceptualisation of the birth a a company and determination of the purpose for which it is to be formed. The persons who conceive the company and invest the initial funds are known as the promoters of the company. The promoters enter into preliminary contracts with vendors and make arrangements for the preparation, advertisement and the circulation of prospectus and placement of capital. However, a person who merely acts in his professional capacity on behalf of the promoter (eg lawyer, CA, etc) for drawing up the agreement or other documents or prepares the figures on behalf of the promoter and who is paid by the promoter is not a promoter. The promoters have certain basic duties towards the company formed :- In case of default on the part of the promoter in fulfilling the above duties, the company may :- A promoter may be rewarded by the company for efforts undertaken by him in forming the company in several ways. The more common ones are :- If the promoter fails to disclose the profit made by him in course of promotion or knowingly makes a false statement in the prospectus whereby the person relying on that statement makes a loss, he will be liable to make good the loss suffered by that other person. The promoter is liable for untrue statements made in the prospectus. A person who subscribes for any shares or debenture in the company on the faith of the untrue statement contained in the prospectus can sue the promoter for the loss or damages sustained by him as the result of such untrue statement. II.Incorporation by Registration :
The promoters must make a decision regarding the type of company i.e a pulic company or a private company or an unlimited company, etc and accordingly prepare the documents for incorporation of the company. In this connection the Memorandum and Articles of Association (MA & AA) are crucial documents to be prepared. Memorandum of Association of a company :
Is the constitution or charter of the company and contains the powers of the company. No company can be registered under the Companies Act, 1956 without the memorandum of association. Under Section 2(28) of the Companies Act, 1956 the memorandum means the memorandum of association of the company as originally framed or as altered from time to time in pursuance with any of the previous companies law or the Companies Act, 1956. The memorandum of association should be in any of the one form specified in the tables B,C,D and E of Schedule 1 to the Companies Act, 1956. Form in Table B is applicable in case of companies limited by the shares , form in Table C is applicable to the companies limited by guarantee and not having share capital, form in Table D is applicable to company limited by guarantee and having a share capital whereas form in table E is applicable to unlimited companies. Contents of Memorandum :
The memorandum of association of every company must contain the following clauses :- Name clause
The name of the company is mentioned in the name clause. A public limited company must end with the word 'Limited' and a private limited company must end with the words 'Private Limited'. The company cannot have a name which in the opinion of the Central Government is undesirable. A name which is identical with or the nearly resembles the name of another company in existence will not be allowed. A company cannot use a name which is prohibited under the Names and Emblems (Prevntion of Misuse Act, 1950 or use a name suggestive of connection to government or State patronage. Domicile clause
The state in which the registered office of company is to be situated is mentioned in this clause. If it is not possible to state the exact location of the registered office, the company must state it provide the exact address either on the day on which...