1. Coercive - association people which force to join
2. Normative - organization we join voluntary which is to gain prestige and common interest 3. Utilitarian - organization we join voluntary and provide material reward Formal Organizations
•Formal organizations fall into the secondary group category because they are formed with a purpose or goal in mind instead of around the relationships of the people involved. They are generally bureaucratic, where there is a hierarchy of power, and hold an identity separate from the individuals that make up the group. The organization can stay the same because of its mission, even if the group members change. Examples of formal organizations include the Catholic Church, governments and corporations.
A formal organization is a structured group that is developed to achieve specific goals efficiently. A formal organization is characterized by activities (salaries, for example), an internal system of communication (who reports to whom), and activities directed toward the achievement of certain goals. Organizations have an internal environment that depends on the relations among groups and members in the organization. In addition, organizations operate in an external environment that includes such diverse forces as government regulations and competing organizations; an environment that affects the achievement of organizational goals. In formal organizations the environment is formal and impersonal. There are three types of formal organizations. The first is utilitarian. People join utilitarian organizations to make money. These organizations consist of executives and subordinates who pursue a common goal or goals as part of their job (e.g., Department of Defense). In other words, an administrative or bureaucratic organization has the ability to mobilize (or bring to bear on an objective) human resources (the staff). People are hired for their devotion to the organizational goal or goals. Other examples of utilitarian organizations include colleges.
Voluntary associations are the second type of formal organization. In these organizations, people band together to pursue a shared interest, not a monetary reward. For example, the members of Mothers Against Drunk Drivers are drawn together by a common cause. There is also a degree of choice involved in joining and participating in voluntary organizations. Other examples include political parties and social clubs. Coercive organizations are the third type of organization. People do not join these organizations voluntarily. Examples include boot camps, prisons, and mental hospitals. Sometimes the characteristics of both bureaucratic and voluntary organizations may be combined. For example, corporations can be considered as either bureaucracies consisting of executives and staffs, or as voluntary associations consisting of investors. Structure of Organizations
Both utilitarian organizations and voluntary associations have formal as well as an informal structures. The formal structure consists of official rules, procedures, goals, and powers that direct the achievement of organizational goals. The informal structure refers to the interaction of people and groups within the organization. The formal structure consists of four elements: •The division of labor or specialization of work. One example of this specialization is the breakdown of clerical work into separate tasks bearing the job titles of secretary, receptionist,...