Foriegn Policy Analysis

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Foreign Policy Analysis

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Foreign Policy Analysis:
A Comparative Introduction Marijke Breuning

Foreign Policy Analysis Copyright © Marijke Breuning, 2007. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles or reviews. First published in 2007 by PALGRAVE MACMILLAN™ 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10010 and Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, England RG21 6XS. Companies and representatives throughout the world. PALGRAVE MACMILLAN is the global academic imprint of the Palgrave Macmillan division of St. Martin’s Press, LLC and of Palgrave Macmillan Ltd. Macmillan® is a registered trademark in the United States, United Kingdom and other countries. Palgrave is a registered trademark in the European Union and other countries. ISBN-13: 978-0-3122-9619-3 ISBN-10: 0-312-29619-3 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Breuning, Marijke, 1957– Foreign policy analysis: a comparative introduction / Marijke Breuning. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-312-29619-3 (alk. paper) 1. International relations—Research. 2. International relations—Study and teaching. I. Title. JZ1234.B74 2007 327.1—dc22 2007014791 A catalogue record of the book is available from the British Library. Design by Scribe Inc. First edition: November 2007 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Printed in the United States of America.


List of Tables Preface Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Glossary Bibliography Index Why Study Foreign Policy Comparatively? Do Leaders Shape Foreign Policy? How Leaders Make Sense of the World Leaders Are Not Alone: The Role of Advisors and Bureaucracies Leaders in Context I: Domestic Constraints on Foreign Policy Making Leaders in Context II: International Constraints on Foreign Policy Making Who or What Determines Foreign Policy?

vii ix 1 27 53 85 115 141 163 177 187 203

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1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 3.1. 4.1. 4.2. 6.1. 6.2.

Levels of analysis and the study of foreign policy Levels of analysis and causation Foreign policy analysis and social scientific terminology Classification of leader personality types The operational code: determining the philosophical and instrumental beliefs of leaders Leadership trait analysis Comparing normative and empirical rationality Comparison of executive management styles Models of decision making Measures of capabilities Geographic circumstances

12 15 19 40 42 44 60 92 97 145 148

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This text reflects a specific point of view about the field of foreign policy analysis. It places the individual decision maker at the heart of the foreign policy decision making process. For this reason, the book starts with a discussion of the role of leaders and then proceeds to situate these individual decision makers in the context of advisors and bureaucracies, as well as domestic and international constraints. Each chapter is organized around puzzles and questions to which undergraduate students can readily relate. The book does not assume prior study of international relations. Quite the contrary, this text assumes no prior knowledge of either international relations or foreign policy analysis. Hence, the focus is on explaining concepts and theories rather than on authors and literature. The book’s focus on the individual decision maker makes it easy for students to identify with the problems inherent in foreign policy making and to place themselves in the shoes of decision makers. The case studies that help explain the concepts are drawn from a variety of countries and time periods and include non-crisis as well as small state foreign policy making. Most of the concepts discussed in this book have been developed in the context of the study of U.S....
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