Forensics: Study Guide

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Forensics Test 1: Study Guide
I. Observational Note Template:
Physical Evidence: any evidence introduced in a trial in the form of a physical (tangible) object intended to prove a fact. (More credible) Testimonial Evidence: includes oral or written statements given to police as well as testimony in court by people who witnessed an event

The Innocence Project reexamine post conviction cases using DNA evidence to provide conclusive proof of guilt or innocence. They have found that many people who were convicted of being guilty, are actually innocent. Observations are things you use your "five senses" to determine. Inference is something that you assume based on previous knowledge. Facial Composites are sketches of a person’s face. Sketch artists and eyewitnesses work with investigators to make these and help identify a suspect of a crime. Some factors affecting the memory of an eyewitness are: age, race, if the person was on drugs, if the person knew the accused, how much time passed since the crime, presence of a weapon, exposure time, physical appearance, time of day, familiarity with the area, and false memories.

II. Introduction Note Template
The CSI effect is when people who watch CSI, think they know more about forensics than they actually do. A lot of what is on CSI is not valid or representative of what forensic scientists actually do. Because of this, jurors often get the wrong idea about trials, when in court. They have high expectations and unrealistic ideas of what can happen. Influential People:

-Mathieu Orfila: toxicology
-Alphonse Bertillon: personal identification (anthropology); Bertillon system -Arthur Conan Doyle: created Sherlock Holmes
-Francis Galton: classifying fingerprints
-Hans Gross: “Kriminologie”; techniques for criminal investigation; forensic journal -August Vollmer: training program for police on the proper collection, preservation and handling of evidence -Albert S. Osborn: document analysis (handwriting)

-Edmond Locard: “Locard Exchange Principle”; every contact leaves a trace -Leone Lattes: how to determine blood type
-Calvin Goddard: ballistics expert
-Mikhail Gerasimov: facial recontruction
-Lawrence Kersta: voice analysis
-Alec Jeffreys: DNA fingerpting
Ernesto Miranda was not informed of his 5th and 6th amendment rights when he was being questioned for supposedly kidnapping and raping a woman. He confessed to the crimes and appealed his case because he was not informed of his rights. He was still convicted. The 5th Amendment gives us the right to remain silent and the right against self incrimination. The 6th Amendment gives us the right to a lawyer. The Locard Exchange Principle states that every time two objects come in contact with each other, they exchange materials. An example is food falling on the floor. 4 Federal Crime Labs:

-Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI): agency that provides expertise and technology support for criminal investigations -Drug Enforcement Administration/Department of Justice (DEA: analyze drugs seized in violation of laws -Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF)/Department of Treasury: analyze beverages, explosive devices, weapons and related evidence -U.S. Postal Inspection Service: concerned with crimes relating to the postal service An expert witness possesses a particular skill or has knowledge in a trade of profession that will aid the court in determining the truth. Qualifications include their educational background, job experience, their ability to talk clearly, concise language and the scientific validity of test used. Polygraphs is an instrument that simultaneously records changes in physiological processes such as heart beat, blood pressure and respiration. Yes, but they are not always right so they are not always used. Evidence that is not accepted in court is circumstantial evidence. Units in a crime lab:

-Physical Science Unit: applies the principles and techniques of chemistry,...
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