Forensic Biology

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Forensic biology is the application of biology to law enforcement.It includes the subdisciplines of Forensic anthropology, Forensic botany, Forensic entomology, Forensic odontology and various DNA or protein based techniques. Applications

Forensic biology has been used to prove a suspect was at a crime scene, identify illegal products from endangered species solve crimes by matching crime scene evidence to suspects, investigate airplane bird strikes, and investigate bird collisions with wind turbines. Evidence transfer and collection

Biological specimens can be used to make linkages (for example, person-person, person-other physical evidence, and person-crime scene). In general, biological evidence can be transferred by direct deposit or by secondary transfer. Blood, semen, body tissue, bone, hair, urine, and saliva can be transferred to an individual's body or clothing, to an object, or to a crime scene by direct deposit. Once liquid biological materials are deposited, they adhere to the surface or the substratum and become stains. Nonfluid biological evidence, such as tissue or hair, can also be transferred by direct contact. Blood, semen, tissue, hair, saliva, or urine also can be transferred to a person, object, or location through an intermediary (a person or an object). With secondary transfer, there is no direct contact between the original source (donor of the biological evidence) and the target surface. Secondary transfer may, but does not necessarily, establish a direct link between an individual and a crime. The ability to analyze biological evidence is impacted by many factors regarding its collection. Unless the evidence is properly recognized, documented, collected, packaged, and preserved, it will not meet the legal or scientific requirements for admissibility into a court of law.

Laboratory analysis
The identification of individuals by analyzing their biological material such as blood, semen, hair, and bone has been used since 1904....
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