Pakistan’s Foreign Policy: Internal Challenges in New Millennium Muqarrab Akbar∗
Pakistan’s foreign policy has always been identified as policy of self-abnegation. It is blamed that external factors particularly USA play a vital role in the shaping of foreign policy of Pakistan but there are many internal factors pose challenges to Pakistan’s foreign policy. Pakistan is an ideological state hence ideology has a special place in its foreign policy and it has been a central focus in the foreign policy for all time. There is a famous U-turn in Pakistan’s foreign policy in recent era and this shift in policy has provoked an intense debate at home and abroad. Territorial integrity is the foremost important foreign policy goal of any country and it deals with the security that may be external or internal or both. Similarly, most important issue in Pakistan’s foreign policy is security concerns because Pakistan has one of the most complex threat analyses of any state in the world. There are many problems at home related to grievances against foreign policy particularly on the issue and pattern of war on terrorism. This paper deals with the theoretical aspect of term foreign policy and analyzes the Pakistan’s foreign policy with special reference to the issue of security. What are the threats and challenges to the security of Pakistan and what are modern trends adopted by Pakistan to counter these security threats. A detailed analysis has been given of domestic challenges in making an effective foreign policy like radical Islam and regional separatism, terrorism, WANA issue and remnants of Al-Qaeda and the Taliban.
Foreign policy can be said to have emerged when contacts between the earliest human societies took place1. Foreign policy behavior refers to the actions states take toward each other. It is important to note that these actions usually are not taken as ends in themselves but are tied in some way to larger purposes-from long run aspirations to more immediate aimsthat national leaders hope to achieve in their dealings with other countries2. There is a dire need for theory of foreign policy that is separate from the theory of international relations. A society constituted by the individuals and evolved with the ∗ 1
Lecturer, Department of Political Science and International Relations, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan. See Joseph Frankel,(1998) , International Relations in a changing world, Oxford University Press, London M. Imtiaz Shahid, International Relation, yesterday, today, tomorrow, Carwan Enterprises, 1995, P: 129
Berkeley Journal of Social Sciences Vol. 1, No. 2, Feb 2011
passage of time in a social organization and the individual cannot properly be understood without society, likewise international relations began with foreign policy and international relations of a state cannot be understood without understanding the foreign policy of that state. So it is very essential to understand the trends of modern international environment particularly in terms of foreign policies of major players of world politics3. Sometimes the two terms, foreign policy and diplomacy create perplexity. The most suitable way to differentiate between the two terms is to consider foreign policy as the legislative and diplomacy as the executive phase of the foreign relations of a country. Practically diplomats of a country play a decisive role in the legislative phase of foreign policy by accumulating and examining imperative information from all corners of the world and convey it usually with their own policy proposal and suggestions to their respective foreign office and maintain a regular exchange of information with policy makers at home regarding a variety of options available in a given situation to deal with a particular affair4. Foreign policy is an extension of internal or domestic policy. Indeed foreign policy...