Foreign Direct Investment in India Since 1991: Trends, Challenges...

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Foreign Direct Investment in India Since 1991: Trends, Challenges and Prospects

By | November 2008
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Foreign Direct Investment in India since 1991: Trends, Challenges and Prospects

M.K. Dutta, Assistant Professor (Economics),
Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, IIT Guwahati, Assam, India E-mail: mkdutta@iitg.ernet.in

&

G.K. Sarma, Research Scholar (Economics),
Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, IIT Guwahati, Assam, India E-mail: g.sarma@iitg.ernet.in

(An earlier version of the paper was published as Dutta, M.K. and Sarma, G.K. (2008) ‘ Foreign Direct Investment in India in the Post Liberalization Period: Trends, Challenges and Prospects’, in P. Verma, P.B. Bhaskaran and P.M.Madhani (eds), Globalization Opportunities and Challenges, Wisdom Publications, Delhi, pp. 18-32)

Abstract: (With the initiation of new economic policy in 1991 and subsequent reforms process, India has witnessed a change in the flow and direction of foreign direct investment (FDI) into the country. This is mainly due to the removal of restrictive and regulated practices. Foreign direct investment in India increased from US $ 129 millions in 1991-92 to US $ 40,885 million in March, 2005, an increase of about 316.9 times. However, the country is far behind in comparison to some of the developing countries like China. In so far as growth trend of FDI is concerned, there has been quite impressive growth of FDI inflow into the country during this period. However, negative growth rate is noticed during the period 1998-2000 primarily due to falling share of major investor countries, steep fall of approval by 55.7% in 1998 compared to 1997 and slackening of fresh equity. However, traditional industrial sectors like food processing industries, textiles, etc. which were once important sectors attracting larger FDI, have given way to modern industrial sectors like electronics and electrical equipments, etc. In this paper analysis on the factors affecting potentiality and challenges of FDI in the country is discussed and open a room for future discussion.)...