Footprint Calculation Co2 Emission, Energy Consumption and Water Consumption Due to Pavement Construction and Usage

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Footprint Calculation
CO2 Emission, Energy Consumption and Water Consumption due to Pavement Construction and Usage Darío Enrique Romero Santana
Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, Western Michigan University 4601 Campus Drive, Room G-249 Kalamazoo, MI 49008 United States

Introduction
Footprint is defined as the “measurement of how much land, water and natural resources a person, city, country or humanity as a whole requires to produce the resource it consumes”, (Edelman Darym). As the definition states, footprint is related to the needs of humanity, and every component of our lifestyles, as humans, contribute to it. Humans normally have different ways of living. The size of their footprint depends upon how they live. Even though not all the people live the same way, there are elements that everyone shares. Nations, cities, and communities are designed with public features. These features are designed with the general population in mind. Even though not everyone will use them, there will always be an indirect relationship between people and the use of these features. Modern methods of transportation have made it possible for a person to live in America and to have an alarm clock made in China, while wearing clothes made in Italy. Or to have breakfast with Colombian coffee, lunch with a banana grown in Costa Rica, and chocolate from Switzerland made with Indonesian cacao.

This clearly states that transportation is the key to the modern lifestyle. Trains, cars, trucks, planes and boats are all ways in which humans transport goods. Each method of transportation has different applications and uses different types of systems. To sufficiently analyze the ecological effect of each method, every component of the system needs to be taken into consideration. The following study calculates the ecological impact of the construction, use and maintenance of a road segment, throughout its lifetime, by estimating CO2 emissions and energy and water consumption. The primary intention of these studies is to determine the implications of building and using transportation systems, and its meaning in an ecological context.

What was done?
A model was created in an Excel Spreadsheet, to estimate different values of CO2 emissions and energy and water consumption of different aspects of construction and usage of pavement.

The model uses data from a specific pavement segment located in the East zone of the Dominican Republic, which is part of Route No. 3 (Carretera Mella). The data being used was taken from a thesis document named “Assessment of the Cayacoa-Quisqueya Roadway Segment (Evaluación y Propuesta de Solución al Deterioro del Tramo Vial Cruce de Quisqueya-Cruce de Cayacoa) written by, Efrain Morla Rafael Alcala and Dario E. Romero. Information about CO2 emissions and energy and water consumption related to the manufacturing of road materials, and the construction process were taken from different sources such as government web sites, books and published research reports. The pavement construction´s ecological footprint was calculated by estimating the amount of fuel need to be burned in order to build individual components of the pavement (base, sub base etc.). There are also materials needed that have been previously manufactured and the resulting ecological footprint was also estimated. Lifetime maintenance of the segment was also assessed as an ecological impact. In order to determine the ecological implication, as was done previously for the construction, CO2 emissions and energy and water consumption were estimated. Different types of pavement and road maintenance (patching, inspection, cleaning, repainting etc) are taken into consideration.

The final purpose of a roadway is to have vehicular traffic. Using traffic studies presented in the aforementioned thesis, the amount of vehicles using the road was determined. The type of vehicle using the road is also to taken into consideration. To determine the...
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