Footnotes and Endnotes

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Manuscripts, consist of typewritten or hand written matter that is prepared for such purposes as making reports, delivering speeches and lectures, supplying copy for printing, etc, (Althols, 1962). Some forms of manuscripts are term papers, research reports, theses, dissertations, essays, articles, stories, books and various kinds of business and legal papers.

Typing manuscripts is not a simple matter of fast and accurate copying, especially where there are citations, references and footnotes. The typist needs to understand what is to be typed and should plan the copy for the specific purpose it is to serve. When typing formal manuscripts or technical reports, it is important that the typist should refer to manuals of goods style prepared by authorities in this matter (Turabian and Campbell, 1967 and 1954). Reference manuals for stenographers and typist or standard handbook for secretaries will also be of great help. The typist should follow the standard rules and suggestions in these manuals for uniformity of spacing, margins, pagination, footnoting, etc. Footnoting. Explanatory notations at the bottom of the page used to cite an authority, to make incidental comments, to make cross-reference, or to make acknowledgements are called footnotes, (Turabian, 1967). These footnotes are indicated by typing a superior (raised) figure immediately following the materials for which a reference is given. Turabian explains that these figures should be “elevated slightly above the line (but never a full space above it), and set after punctuations, if any. “this can be done by rolling the cylinder toward you a half space and holding it in position as the superior figure is typed or use the selling by the computer system to write the footnote. Footnotes are separated from the last line of manuscript as follows.

Typing Manuscripts with Footnotes and Endnotes
After typing the last manuscript line, single space and, with the underline key type a 1 ½ inch line from the left margin. Double space, indent the left margin to paragraph point, type the appropriate superscript, and then, without spacing type the footnote single spaced. Double space between footnotes.

Footnotes in a manuscript numbered consecutively, either for each chapter or continuously throughout the manuscript and are identical with the reference numbers. (Campbell, 1954). Footnotes and Endnotes are used to give credit to source of any materials borrowed. summarized or paraphrased. They are intended to refer readers to the exact pages of the works listed in the Works Cited, References, or Bibliography section. The main difference between Footnotes and Endnotes is that Footnotes are placed numerically at the foot of the very same page where direct references are made; while Endnotes are placed numerically at the end of the essay on a separate page entitles Endnotes or Notes. If you are still using a typewriter, a superscript number is typed half a space above the line after the last word of the citation, e.g., “The Information Superhighway is giving way to a Commercial Superhighway. “1 If you are using a word processor, you can access the superscript function. To type a Footnote citation, the same superscript number is put at the beginning of the Footnote at the bottom of the same page where the citation occurs. When monitoring a work for the first time, a full and complete Footnote or Endnote entry must be made. NOTE: Only one sentence is used a Footnote or Endnote citation, i.e., only one period or full stop is used at the end of any Footnotes or Endnote citation. In a Bibliography, each citation consists of a minimum of three statements or sentence, hence each entry requires a Typing Manuscripts with Footnotes and Endnotes

minimum of three periods, e.g., a period after the author statement, a period the title statement, and a period after the publication statement (publication/publisher/publication...
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