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What is the infectious agent (pathogen) that causes this infectious disease? For example, the name of the bacteria, virus, or parasite. The process of infection can be broken down into stages, each of which can be blocked by different defense mechanisms. In the first stage, a new host is exposed to infectious particles shed by an infected individual. The number, route, mode of transmission, and stability of an infectious agent outside the host determines its infectivity. Some pathogens, such as anthrax, are spread by spores that are highly resistant to heat and drying, while others, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are spread only by the exchange of bodily fluids or tissues because they are unable to survive as infectious agents outside the body. How is this infectious agent transmitted through food or water? Infectious pathogens include some viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular parasites, and aberrant proteins known as prions. These pathogens are the cause of disease epidemics, in the sense that without the pathogen, no infectious epidemic occurs. The term infectivity describes the ability of an organism to enter, survive and multiply in the host, while the infectiousness of a disease indicates the comparative ease with which the disease is transmitted to other hosts. Transmission of pathogen can occur in various ways including physical contact, contaminated food, body fluids, objects, airborne inhalation, or through vector organisms What is an example of a real life outbreak of this foodborne illness in the United States? In early October 2012, the Clark County Public Health Department (“the health department”) received the first reports of a cluster of Salmonella Virchow infections occurring in the county. Additional reports came in rapidly, and by October 9, interviews of ill persons indicated that the source of the developing outbreak was the On the Border restaurant in Vancouver, Washington....
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