* FOOD HANDINLING & STORAGE:
1. Food poisoning:
* Incorrectly , handled or stored is potentially fatal
* Food poisoning – occurs when becoming sick after eating food that is poisonous. * Symptoms:
* Nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, severe- double vision. Paralysis. * FOOD DOES NOT HAVE TO LOOK OR TASTE BAD TO BE CONTAMINATED. * Bacteria are single cell organisms, rapidly in right conditions. * Bacteria grow and multiply, in conditions. (WARMTH, MOISTURE,TIME,FOOD,OXYGEN) Factors contributing to food poisoning:
•Long time period between preparing and eating food,
• contamination by food handlers
•Contamination raw foods or ingredients
* 2. CONTAMINATON: by chemical, physical, biological make unsafe consumption. safe food has become spoiled because of how it is handled, prepared or stored. Causes : * Staff, don’t maintain, personal levels hygiene, dirty clothing, wearing jewellery, long fingernails. * Not washing hands
* Coughing , sneezing
* Sick whist preparing food.
* Cooked foods, trays that had raw foods on them.
Correct food handling procedures
* Defrost, cool room, microwave, never on bench, sink. * Keep out danger zone- cold food below 5. hot over 60 * Large quantities hot food chilled into smaller containers * No cooked foods on tray
* Cover all stored foods
* Wash all fruits, verges
* Reliable supplies
* Clean utensils.
3. HEALTH HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH FOODS:
* Lifestyle change – people eat out more.
* Boom in food industry.
* A) Food borne illness- food poisoning caused by micro-organisms is called foodborne. Various microorganisms are : 1. Bacteria: 1 celled organisms, cause 2 types of food poisoning * INFECTIVE (eating live bacteria) = SALMONELLA-source= eaten raw, undercooked, (meat, poultry, eggs or milk). If food comes in contact with raw foods. Symptoms = fever, diohrrea. Prevention: separate raw from cooked foods, thoroughly cook meat, poultry, and eggs. Refrigerate below 5 degrees. * TOXIC – toxins produced in bacteria, in toxins cause illness. toxins cannot be removed= STAPHYLOCCUS – by skin boils, pimples, throat infections, when carries food. Produce toxins in warm temperatures. Symptoms- vomiting, nausea. Prevention. Cooking will not destroy staph poison, good hygiene, sanitary procedures. Don’t leave perishable foods unrefrigerated for over 2 hours. * Fungi + moulds – mycotoxins harmful to man,
* Virus- don’t grow on food, need a living host cell which they can reproduce. Reproduce in body * Protozoa- metropolitan water , - giardia lamblia- cause dihorea
* Microorganisms that cause food borne illness, can be transferred from a contaminated food item, transfer to gastrointestinal tract, unpleasant symptoms. Correct hygiene and storage is required in handling food * Not good for you - classifies as undesirables can occur naturally, microbial(bacteria and fungi) or environmental contaminations * B) FOOD CONTAMINATION CAN BE CAUSED BY: cleaning chemical, residues result of agriculture or industries e.g. foreign objects, Biological such as micro-organisms or toxins produced by micro-organisms, or caused by other substances to make unsafe. * Natural toxins- either plant or animal derived (solanine, in green potato skin)(tetrodotoixin-paralysis in puffer fish )
4. Factors affecting microbial Growth:
* Microbial activity- bacteria, virus, yeasts and moulds food or surrounding to deteriorate. * Factors affect the growth and survival of microorganism- * Availability of nutrients
* Water – need water to survive well, not bound in food but measured in terms of water activity. Microbial growth. Water content isn’t the same to moisture content, used to predict growth, such as bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Most micro-organisms don’t survive well...