A. Fundamentals in Microbiology
* Knowledge in microbiology will help you understand how and why disease-causing bacteria grow and spread, so that you are able to prevent food-borne diseases. Kinds of bacteria
1. Beneficial bacteria
These are helpful to us. They can enhance flavor of butter, yoghurt, and cheese. 2. Undesirable bacteria
These are bacteria that are responsible for food spoilage.
3. Disease-causing bacteria or pathogens
These are bacteria that are most of the food-borne illnesses. The only way to protect food against pathogenic bacteria is by proper hygiene and sanitary food handling and storage techniques. Growth of bacteria
Food: Bacteria prefer high –protein foods.
PH level: This stands for hydrogen, referring to how “acid” or “ alkaline” a substance is. The scale ranges from 0 (strongly acidic) to 14(strongly alkaline). A pH of 7 is neutral. Time: The longer food is left at a dangerous temperature, the more time the bacteria will have to multiply. Temperature: The temperature danger zone for potentially hazardous foods is 40-140F. Oxygen: Some bacteria require oxygen to grow ( aerobic bacteria), while others require no oxygen (anaerobic bacteria). However most of the bacteria that cause food-borne illnesses can either grow with or without oxygen (facultative bacteria). Moisture: Bacteria need water or moisture to multiply.
B. Food-borne illnesses
Food-borne illnesses is a disease that is carried or transmitted to people by food. -food infection- caused by bacteria that get into intestinal system and attack the body
-food poisoning or intoxication- caused by poisons/toxins that the bacteria produce while they are growing in the food. Food infection
Source: Contaminated meat and poultry, fecal contamination by food workers. Clostridium perfringes
Source: occur in the soil, dust and water and are carried in the intestines of animals and people. Food poisoning
The 10 main reasons for food poisoning are the ff:
A. Factors leading to bacterial growth
- improper cooling
-improper hot holding
-long delay between preparation and serving
-use of leftovers
B. Factors leading to food contamination
-contaminated raw ingredients
-inadequate cleaning equipment
Staphylococcal Food poisoning
Source: usually food workers
Source: soil on vegetables and other foods.
Source: Food poisoning is primarily caused by fecal contamination. Physical contamination
-occur when objects such as broken glass accidentally get into food. Cross contamination
-the transfer of harmful microorganisms to safe, ready to eat food by hand, equipment while storing, serving food. Food is contaminated as a result of:
1. Food handlers with poor personal hygiene.
2. Contaminated raw food
3. Contaminated kitchen utensils.
The contaminated food remains in favorable state for growth of the bacteria as a result of: 1. Improper cooling
2. Advance preparation
3. Inadequate reheating
4. Improper hot holding
5. Improper thawing
C. Protection against bacteria
3 basic principles of food protection against bacteria:
1. Stop bacteria from getting into food
2. Stop bacteria on food from multiplying at a dangerous level 3. Destroy the bacteria on food
D. Personal hygiene
By staying healthy and keeping clean, you can prevent an outbreak of food-borne illnesses. Basic of food personal hygiene
1.stay at home if you are suffering from diarrhea, fever.
2.if you are taking med. Keep it in your locker away from food. -Hand washing care
1.Wash hands thoroughly with warm water and soup.
2. keep fingernails trimmed and clean.
Clothing, grooming and personal habits
Clean clothes and uniforms:
bathe daily and wear clean clothes to work.
Other good habits:
1. Do not sneeze or cough near food
2. Never apply makeup or perfume in...