Food Safety

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Why are some people getting sick while the others remain healthy? Various background of scientists exercise different methods in order to verify the causes that make people to get sick. For instance, pathologists study infinitesimal tissue samples and organisms. Physicians study the symptoms, signs and medical backgrounds of specific patients. Epidemiologists have a further distant observation as they study groups of people at the population level.

Epidemiologists in the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, New York (CDC) work like crime scene investigators. Generally, when viewing how a disease gets spread among people, it can be seen that the disease does not have an effect on everyone in every place at the all time. On the other hands, it affects to certain people in certain places at specific times.

What is infectious disease? An individuals could get infected and being infected of disease. Infectious diseases are caused by microbes which cannot be seen in the normal eyes view. The most common infectious disease-causing microbes are bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasite. In general daily conversation, they could also being called as germs.

What are the differences between those disease-causing microbes? Bacteria are single-celled organisms which have advantages to breed themselves Through the views of microscope it is filled with fluids and move themselves like a tail. A virus is contradicted with bacteria as it is disability to breed on their own. However viruses are capable of infecting cells and take over their reproductive machinery to help them to breed. Fungi are invented of many cells yet they are not capable to produce their own food from soil and water. Examples of fungi are mushrooms and yeast. Parasites are very small and most of them are live in water. Malaria is a parasitic protozoan.

Generally, when a person is having coughs, the infection towards the people who is around him/her becomes easier. It shows that disease could be transmitted from a person to another person. The disease could be sometimes be transmitted through another medium, for example, by drinking water or eating food infected with bacteria. Some disease could be spread to human through an animal as a carrier such as insects and worms.



Epidemiology is the study of human populations to establish correlations among the particular environmental conditions and specific health effects (Tomris, 2003). Poor level of healthiness of human being could be disturbed by threats such as air and water pollution, toxic substance exposure in a neighborhood and vaccination (Ferng, 2000). According to Ferng (2000), the most common application of epidemiology in public health is as shown as

1. Collecting and analyzing vital records (births and deaths) and disease records (morbidity); 2. Monitoring diseases or other community health problems;
3. Investigating outbreaks leading to control or prevention of epidemics and other community health problems; 4. Identifying public health problems and measuring the extent of their distribution, frequency, or effect on the public’s health; 5. Evaluating health programs; and/or

6. Providing data necessary for health planning or decision making by health agency administrators or health policy makers


The trend of how certain diseases appear in some populations is varying. When a particular disease is consistently found in a specific community, and the disease occurs only in that limited geographical region or population, the disease is said to be endemic (Ferng, 2000). Epidemic, on the other hands is a term used when a disease which occur in an area excess the expected level for a particular time period. Pandemic is a word used when the disease affects not only towards a huge number of people in a certain nation but to other nation as well. In Africa, HIV/AIDS is an...
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