INTRODUCTION * The interactions between microorganisms, plants and animals are natural and constant. * Since the human food supply consists basically of plants and animals or products derived from them, it is understandable that our food supply can contain microorganisms in interaction with the food. * Microorganisms can spoil a food by increasing their numbers, utilizing nutrients, producing enzymatic changes and contributing off-flavours by means of breakdown of a product or synthesis of new compounds. * To prevent this, we minimize the contact between microorganisms and our foods and also eliminate microorganisms from our food, or at least adjust conditions of storage to prevent their growth(preservation). * The main aims of packaging are to keep the food in good condition until it is sold and consumed, and to encourage customers to purchase the product.
INTRODUCTION TO FOOD PACKAGING
* Packaging technology is essential to present life styles in developed societies. * With the general use of packaging and the development of modern techniques for food safety and commercialization, the universalized consumption of all food has become possible without distance or seasonal limitations, and at an adequate cost. * Efficient packaging is necessary for the commercialization of every food type, from fresh produce to ready-to-eat meals. * Nowadays , a wide and diversified supply of packaging materials and designs are available to suit the specific requirements of industry and consumers. * Packaging materials can be grouped as metallic materials(tinplate, electrolytic chromium-coated steel and aluminium ), glass, paper and paperboard , plastics ,wood and other materials. * In the following pages, a basic
* i) introduction of food packaging is briefly mentioned. ii) history of food packaging
iii) need of food packaging
v)recent research areas in food packaging
* Food packaging is packaging for food.
* It requires protection, tampering resistance, and special physical, chemical, or biological needs. It also shows the product that is labeled to show any nutrition information on the food being consumed. * A package is a manufactured product consisting of any materials combination, used to present, contain , protect, handle and distribute goods, from raw materials to finished products, in every phase of the distribution chain. * Thus, the basic packaging functions follow:
a) To contain the product.
b) To present and identify the product.
c) To protect the products physical intregity
d) To preserve the products properties and quality characteristics e) To prepare the product for handling during transportation and commercial distribution. f) To inform the consumer
* Packages have changed with time in response to the following social factors: population growth, urbanization, necessity, to avoid food deterioration and loss, women’s incorporation into the job market, internationalization of commerce, greater awareness about hygiene, consumption of more natural foods and environmental deterioration. * As a result,primitive packages like pumpkin shells,skins or ceramic containers have been replaced in a progressive technological evolution by new industrial materials like-paper,glass,tinplate and plastics. * Today,a wide and diversified supply of packaging materials and designs is available to suit the specific requirements of industry and consumers.
HISTORY OF FOOD PACKAGING
* Early in history food was consumed where it was found.
* With the development of agriculture, families and villages were self-sufficient, producing, making and catching what they used. * When packaging was needed, nature provided shells, gourds, animal skins etc. In time, containers...