Food-borne illness can be defined as diseases commonly transmitted through food. It comprises a broad group of illnesses caused by microbial pathogens, parasites, chemical contaminants and biotoxins. Recently, the outbreak of food-borne illness is increasing rapidly all over the world as the emergence of emerging food-borne pathogens (Li, 2007). For example, there are 1500 people die for infected by three pathogens - Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma - in the United Sates every year. In 1996, about 10,000 children are infected (11 deaths) by E.coliO157:H7 in Japan. In 2005, Denmark exploded two Norovirus outbreaks due to the imported frozen raspberries from Poland. The first one involved 272 patients and the latter one included at least 289. In 2006, over 1700 children infected with Norovirus through school meal in Seoul, South and Korea (Forsythe, 2010). Therefore, more and more people begin to research the emerging pathogens. To further understand emerging pathogens, this essay is divided into three parts:
* The definition of emerging pathogen with related examples
* Possible factors promote the appearance of emerging pathogens
* How to greatly control the spread of emerging pathogens
The definition of emerging pathogens
Woolhouse (2002) sated that an emerging pathogen can be defined as an infectious agent whose incidence is increasing follow its first introduction into a new host population. Additionally, In 2009 International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) combined the features of emerging pathogens to present more detailed the definition and give related examples at the same time as follows:
Table 1：The definition of emerging pathogens and examples
(Sources: Farber, 2009)
Factors that promoting appearance of emerging pathogens
Changes in eating structure and habits
Rapid urbanization and globalization of the food supply have radically changed people's dietary habits. People now... [continues]
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