INTERDUCTION it is everyone’s right to have the food for live. Day by day population is increasing and cultivating earth is decreasing. So it is very necessary to improve the food resources.
There are many communities in the world which are living in starvation of the food. Every year millions of people dyeing due to hunger. We do not have any major scope for increasing the area of land under cultivation. Therefore, it is necessary to increase our production efficiency for both crops and livestock. Livestock also is a source of food. Milk production, meat, eggs, etc. also need to be improved.
IMPROVEMENT IN CROPS:
IMPROVEMENT IN CROPS Improvement in crops can be done by good choice of seeds for planting. Second is the nurturing of the crop plants .The third is the protection of growing and harvested crops. Thus, the major groups of activities for improving crop yields can be classified as: - Crop variety improvement Crop production improvement Crop protection management.
CROP VARIETY IMPROVEMENT:
CROP VARIETY IMPROVEMENT farmer would need to be provided with good quality of seeds. Variety can be improved by hybridization. Hybridization refers to crossing between genetically dissimilar plants.
Some of the factors for which variety improvement is done are: Higher yield: To increase the productivity of the crop per acre. Improved quality: Quality consideration of the crop products vary from crop to crop. Biotic and abiotic resistance: Crop production can go down due to biotic and abiotic stresses under different situation. Change in maturity duration: The shorter the duration of the crop from sowing to harvesting, the more economical is the variety. Desirable agronomics characteristics: Tallness and profuse branching are desirable characters for fodder crops.
Wider adaptability: Developing variety for wider adaptability will help in stabilizing the crop production under different environmental conditions.
CROP PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT:
CROP PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT just as we need food for development, growth and well-being, plants also require nutrients for growth. (i) Nutrient management Nutrients are supplied to plants by air, water and soil. There are 16 nutrients which are essential for plants. Air supplied carbon and oxygen, hydrogen comes from water, and soil supplies the other 13 nutrients to plants. Almost these 13 nutrients, 6are required in large quantity and therefore called macro-nutrients. The other 7 nutrients are used by plants in small quantities and are therefore called micro-nutrients.
TABLE: Nutrients supplied by air, water and soil:
TABLE: Nutrients supplied by air, water and soil to increase the yield, the soil can be enriched by supplying these nutrients in the form manure and fertilizers. SOURCES NUTRIENTS Air carbon, oxygen Water Hydrogen, oxygen Soil Macronutrients: nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium. Micronutrients: iron, zinc, boron, copper, chlorine, manganese.
MANURE Manure contains large quantities of organic matter. Manure is prepared by the decomposition of animal excreta and plant waste. This involves increasing the water holding capacity in the sandy soil. Using biological waste material is also a way of recycling the farm waste. Based on the kind of the biological material used, manure can be classified as:- (i) Compost and vermi-compost : The process in which the farm waste like livestock., vegetable waste, sewage waste, etc. is decomposed in the pits is known as composting. The compost is rich in organic matters and nutrients. Compost is also prepared by using earthworms to hasten the process of decomposition of plants and animal refuse. This is known as vermi-compost.
(ii) Green manure : Prior to the sowing of crop seed, some plants like sun hemp or guar are grown and...