Food Dyes

Topics: Food coloring, E number, Food colorings Pages: 5 (1637 words) Published: November 28, 2012
Purpose of food coloring

People associate certain colors with certain flavors, and the color of food can influence the perceived flavor in anything from candy to wine.[2] Sometimes the aim is to simulate a color that is perceived by the consumer as natural, such as adding red coloring to glacé cherries (which would otherwise be beige), but sometimes it is for effect, like the green ketchup that Heinz launched in 1999. Color additives are used in foods for many reasons including:[3] offset color loss due to exposure to light, air, temperature extremes, moisture and storage conditions correct natural variations in color

enhance colors that occur naturally
provide color to colorless and "fun" foods
Color additives are recognized as an important part of many foods we eat.[4] [edit]Regulation

Food colorings are tested for safety by various bodies around the world and sometimes different bodies have different views on food color safety. In the United States, FD&C numbers (which indicate that the FDA has approved the colorant for use in foods, drugs and cosmetics) are given to approved synthetic food dyes that do not exist in nature, while in the European Union, E numbers are used for all additives, both synthetic and natural, that are approved in food applications. The food colors are known by E numbers that begin with a 1, such as E100 (turmeric) or E161b (lutein).[5] Most other countries have their own regulations and list of food colors which can be used in various applications, including maximum daily intake limits. Natural colors are not required to be certified by a number of regulatory bodies throughout the world, including the United States FDA. The FDA lists "color additives exempt from certification" for food in subpart A of the Code of Federal Regulations - Title 21 Part 73. However, this list contains substances which may have synthetic origins. FDA's permitted colors are classified as subject to certification or exempt from certification, both of which are subject to rigorous safety standards prior to their approval and listing for use in foods. Certified colors are synthetically produced and are used widely because they impart an intense, uniform color, are less expensive, and blend more easily to create a variety of hues. There are nine certified color additives approved for use in the United States. Certified food colors generally do not add undesirable flavors to foods. Colors that are exempt from certification include pigments derived from natural sources such as vegetables, minerals or animals. Nature derived color additives are typically more expensive than certified colors and may add unintended flavors to foods. Examples of exempt colors include annatto, beet extract, caramel, beta-carotene and grape skin extract. [edit]Natural food dyes

Natural food colors can make a variety of different hues
A growing number of natural food dyes are being commercially produced, partly due to consumer concerns surrounding synthetic dyes. Some examples include: Caramel coloring (E150), made from caramelized sugar

Annatto (E160b), a reddish-orange dye made from the seed of the achiote. Chlorophyllin (E140), a green dye made from chlorella algae
Cochineal (E120), a red dye derived from the cochineal insect, Dactylopius coccus Betanin (E162) extracted from beets
Turmeric (curcuminoids, E100)
Saffron (carotenoids, E160a)
Paprika (E160c)
Lycopene (E160d)
Elderberry juice
Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius), a green food coloring
Butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea), a blue food dye
To ensure reproducibility, the colored components of these substances are often provided in highly purified form, and for increased stability and convenience, they can be formulated in suitable carrier materials (solid and liquids). Hexane, acetone and other solvents break down cell walls in the fruit and vegetables and allow for maximum extraction of the coloring. Residues of these often remain in the finished product, but they do...
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