Food Crisis and Solution

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Introduction 1. Agricultural Biotechnology Agricultural biotechnology may be defined as a group of technologies that use biological systems or living organisms to modify agricultural products or process in order to improve plants or develop microorganisms for specific purpose (Nyende 2008). Although this technology seems to be a new one, actually, it is not (Falk et al. 2002). For example, the Native Americans created maize by domestication of a wild plant called teosinte 8,000 years ago (Falk et al. 2002). {draw:frame} Figure 1 *Genetically* modified crops in the developing world, 1987-2000 Source:* Huang et al. *(*2002*) Agricultural biotechnology provides many alternatives in order to raise crops yields. 1.1 Herbicide tolerant crops 1.2 Virus / insect tolerant crops Carpenter and Gianesis (2001 cited in Nyende 2008) stated that virus or insect tolerant crops require less chemical pesticides due to the resistance of insect damage. Additionally, this method increases yields because insect cannot damage crops (Carpenter et al. (2001 cited in Nyende 2008)). 1.3 Drought and Salt tolerant crops Altman (2003 cited in Nyende 2008) claimed that high temperatures and salinity are major factors which limited plant growth. Zhang et al. (2000 cited in Nyende 2008) stated that if crops are redesigned to cope with drought and salinity, this will increase sharply in agricultural production. For example, in Australia, Drysdale semi-dwarf is a new variety of high water-efficient wheat which is able to raise grain yields up 10 percent in drought-affected areas (Koechlin 2004) 2. SRI (System of Rice Intensification) The system of rice intensification (SRI) is a new technology which focuses on rice production. The SRI was developed in Madagascar in 1980s (Uphoff 2004). This method can raise rice yields up 50 percent by using less water, land and capital but requires labour-intensive (Farooq 2006). There are many case studies which present...
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