Food Consumption Among Malaysian Students

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FOOD CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOR, NUTRITION AND HEALTH KNOWLEDGE AND DIETARY CHANGES AMONG MALAYSIAN STUDENTS AT OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY

By SffiW-ING HIT Bachelor of Science Oklahoma State Universiil:y Stillwater, Oklahoma 1994

Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate College of the Oklahoma State University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of Master of Science July, 1997

FOOD CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOR, NUTRITION AND HEALTH KNOWLEDGE AND DIETARY CHANGES AMONG MALAYSIAN STUDENTS AT OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY

Thesis Approved:

-bMlIA~~ . .
J./(. I...-~

~

,fl. The~s

=

Dean ofthe Graduate College

ii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I wish to express my sincere appreciation to my major advisor, Dr. Lea Ebro, for her intelligent supervision, constructive guidance, and assistance during my academic work and completion of my research. My sincere appreciation is also conveyed to Dr. William Warde and Dr. Jerrold K. Leong, whose guidance and assistance were invaluable. I would also like to give my speciati appreciation to my parents, Hii, Yii Chiok and Ling Choi Sing and my sister, Hii, Ley Mee for their support and encouragement.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

1

Purpose and Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2 Hypotheses 2 Assumptions and Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

n.

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

5

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Geographical description and foods and agricultural in Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . .5 Traditional Malaysian Food :.7 Food and Nutrition in Malaysia 11 Nutritional and Health Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Cultural Aspect of Food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Food habits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Economics of food 18 Acculturation 20

m.

METHODOLOGY

26

Introduction 26 Research Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Population and Sample 26 Data Collection 27 Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION , ..29

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Characteristics ofMalaysian Students 29 Food Consumption Behavior of Malaysian Students 32 Nutrition and Health Knowledge of Malaysian Students 40 Statistical Analysis .45 Discussion 52

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V. SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS .. , , . . . . . . . .. 55 Summary of Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 55 Statistical Analysis 56 Recommendations 56 Implications ' 57 BffiLIO,GRAPHY APPENDIXES APPENDIX A--CORRESPONDENCE APPENDIX B--RESEARCH INSTRUMENT APPENDIX C-CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS TABLES 59 64 , . 65 67 73

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LIST OF TABLES Table Page

I. Characteristics Malaysian Students 31 Meal Pattern of Malaysian Students 32 m. Reasons for Missing Meals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 33 IV. . Snack foods eaten by Malaysian students . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 V. Types of food eaten in Fast Food Restaurants 36 VI. List offoods offensive to Malaysian Students' Culture or Religion 37 VIT. Western Foods Liked and Disliked by Malaysian Students 38 39 VIII. Daily Consumption of Beverages in Malaysia and in the United Sates IX. Foods Consumed More by Malaysian...
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