In the derivation of Bernoulli’s equation, the assumption of the inviscid and incompressible flow is used. However in the real case, the viscosity cannot be neglect and the density of the flow is not always constant. Thus Bernoulli’s equation is not always correct. For the lab, it is reasonable to assume the flow is inviscid and incompressible. Firstly, the pitot was placed at the center of the flow. The skin friction (effect of viscosity) is inversely proportional to distance. Therefore the effect of viscosity can be neglected in the pitot. Secondly, the speed of the flow is much lower than the speed of sound under the sonic condition. Therefore, the Mach number is low enough to neglect the change of density of the controlled volume and the controlled volume is almost incompressible. That is why we can estimate the velocity of the flow by Bernoulli’s equation and continuity equation.
As a result of the viscosity, the internal flow is constrained by the bounding walls and the effect grows during the entire flow. At the inflow region, the flow is nearly inviscid. After that, the boundary layers are growing along the duct which is called developing profile region. This is because the effect of viscosity is growing. At the centre of the duct, there is an inviscid core flow. When the boundary layers are merged, the flow is fully developed and the velocity is not affected by viscosity anymore. Meanwhile the static pressure decreases due to the effect of viscosity (friction). The expanding area of diffuser produces low velocity, which increases the pressure and adverse gradient. The fluid is viscid and the boundary layer is separated as a result of the back flow and poor pressure recovery, if the angle is large. The separation will increase the flow losses. Besides, the larger angle leads to the earlier separation and heavier flow losses. If there is an abrupt enlargement, because of viscosity, large vortex flow causes the flow losses and...
...Experiment 3: Fluid Flow Friction and Fitting Loss
Objective
To determine the pressure or head loss in different diameters pipes, joints and valves
Theory
Pipe flows belong to a broader class of flows, called internal flows, where the fluid is completely bounded by solid surfaces. In contrast, in external flows, such as flow over a flat plate or an airplane wing, only part of the flow is bounded by a solid surface. The term pipe flow is generally used to...
...Egon Krause Fluid Mechanics
Egon Krause
Fluid Mechanics
With Problems and Solutions, and an Aerodynamic Laboratory
With 607 Figures
Prof. Dr. Egon Krause RWTH Aachen Aerodynamisches Institut W¨ llnerstr.57 u 52062 Aachen Germany
ISBN 3540229817 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York
Library of Congress Control Number: 2004117071 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned,...
...Experiment 1
Fluid Flow In A Smooth Pipe
Abstract
In this experiment, three variable flow meters are used to alter the flowrate. Changes in pressure drop due to the change in flowrate are then observed from the three pressure gauges that can measure pressure at different range and recorded. The shift from laminar flow to turbulent flow is seen from the results recorded, but it is observed more clearly from the watersoluble dye experiment that was carried out by the...
...WHAT IS FLUID MECHANICS ?
FLUIED:
Any thing whose particles can move easily from one place to another that means shape can be easily changed upon the application of negligible force.
MECHANICS:
Study of response of bodies upon the application of force.
FLUID MECHANICS :
Fluid mechanics may be defined as the branch of engineering science which deal with...
...examine the viscosities of ideal and nonideal solutions. The ideal being the toluene/pxylene and the nonideal being the methanol/water. The second objective of this lab was to investigate the temperature dependence of viscosity (Halpern, 171).
Introduction:
Viscosity is the resistance to flow of a certain fluid. In this experiment two solutions are used. According to the definition of viscosity mobile...
...Wind tunnel test of an F18 fighter plane model. Testing of models is imperative in the design
of complex, expensive fluidsengineering devices. Such tests use the principles of dimensional
analysis and modeling from this chapter. (Courtesy of Mark E. Gibson/Visuals Unlimited)

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Study Guide
Chapter 5
Dimensional Analysis
and Similarity
Motivation. In this chapter we discuss the...
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SUBJECTIVE: Fluid volume deficit related to SHORT TERM GOAL: >Establish rapport. >To gain the pt’s trust SHORT TERM GOAL: 
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...16/11/2011
Fluid Mechanics  4 Real Fluids
1
Contents
Introduction Objectives Real Fluid Types of Flow Laminar Flow Turbulent Flow
2
1
16/11/2011
Introduction
In the earlier chapter, the basic equations of continuity and energy were introduced and applied to fluid flow cases where the assumption of frictionless flow (or ideal fluid flow) was made. It is now necessary to introduce concepts which...