In this project, the goal is to apply the knowledge of fluid dynamics in order to determine the effect of two parameters (oil density and volume fraction) on how long will it take for an oil drop to rise a distance of 1m in an oil/water distribution.

In this part, the goal was to determine the effect of volume fraction on separation time. In order to determine the effect of volume fraction on settle-time, the density of oil was assumed to be constant with an average value of 900 kg/m3. Volume fraction was varied from a value of 0 to 0.5 and by using the Zigrang-Sylvester relationships provided by the instructor, the coefficients a,b and c were calculated. The settling velocity Uϕ was then determined by using the following relationship;

Uϕ = c – (c2 – a2)1/2

Finally, the time was determined for the oil drops to rise by a distance of 1m by using the following relationship;

Timesettle = Distance / Uϕ

Part 2:

In the 2nd part of the problem, the density of the oil drops was varied between 850 kg/m3 to 950 kg/m3 in order to determine the effect of varying oil density on settling time....

...1. Using diagrams and/or graphs, explain the following terms:
a. Pressure Head
pressure head [′presh·ər ‚hed]
(fluidmechanics)
Also known as head.
The height of a column of fluid necessary to develop a specific pressure.
The pressure of water at a given point in a pipe arising from the pressure in it.
b. Total Discharge Head
Total discharge head refers to the actual physical difference in height between the liquid level in the pit and the highest point of the discharge pipe or water level in the outlet.
c. NPSH
Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH). The measurement of liquid pressure at the pump end of the suction system, including the design of the pump.
d. Suction Lift
Pump Performance Curve
The pump characteristic is normally described graphically by the manufacturer as a pump performance curve. The pump curve describes the relation between flow rate and head for the actual pump. Other important information for proper pump selection is also included – efficiency curves, NPSHr curve, pump curves for several impeller diameters and different speeds, and power consumption.
Increasing the impeller diameter or speed increases the head and flow rate capacity - and the pump curve moves upwards.
The head capacity can be increased by connecting two or more pumps in series, or the flow rate capacity can be increased by connecting two or more
e. Pump Efficiency
Pump Efficiency
The term pump efficiency is used on all types of...

...Fluidmechanics is the branch of physics that studies fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them. Fluidmechanics can be divided into
1) fluid statics, the study of fluids at rest;
2) fluid kinematics, the study of fluids in motion;
3) fluid dynamics, the study of the effect of forces on fluid motion.FluidMechanics Overview
Fluid is a substance that is capable of flowing. It has no definite shape of its own. It assumes the shape of its container. Liquids and gases are fluids
Types of Fluids:
Fluids can be classified into four basic types. They are:
1) Ideal Fluid
2) Real Fluid
3) Newtonian Fluid
4) Non-Newtonian Fluid
5) Ideal plastic fluid
1. Ideal Fluid:
An Ideal Fluid is a fluid that has no viscosity. It is incompressible in nature. Practically, no ideal fluid exists.
2. Real Fluid:
Real fluids are compressible in nature. They have some viscosity.
Examples: Kerosene, Petrol, Castor oil
3. Newtonian Fluid:
Fluids that obey Newton’s law of viscosity are known as Newtonian...

...An oilspill can be defined as an accidental or deliberate dumping of oil or petroleum products into the ocean and its coastal waters, bays, and harbors, or onto land, or into rivers or lakes (Holum 1977). Between one and ten million metric tons (one metric ton is 1000 kilograms) of oil are put into the oceans every year. The oil is released, most often, in small yet consistent doses from tankers, industry, or on shore waste disposal (Boesh, Hersher, et al. 1974). Tanker spills cost the United States more than one hundred million dollars every year. Spill frequency increases proportionally with tonnage carried, in a linear manner. Non-tanker spills also increase linearly and account for thirty percent of all spills. The Atlantic area near Europe averages eight spills a year, the American area seven, and the Pacific two. Spills of more than ten thousand metric tons account for about two and a half percent of total spills, and spills above fifty thousand metric tons occur on average once a year. The average spill size is around seven thousand metric tons (Smets 1982).
If left alone, oilspills will eventually break up naturally. The natural degradation is influenced by temperature, wind, wave action, the thickness of the oil, the...

...FLUIDMECHANICSFluidsmechanics is a branch of mechanics that is concerned with properties of gases and liquids. Mechanics is important as all physical activities involves fluid environments, be it air, water or a combination of both.
The type of fluid environment we experience impacts on performance.
Flotation
The ability to maintain a stationary on the surface of the water- varies from he on person to another. Our body floats on water when forces created by its weight are matched equally or better by the buoyant force of water. For an object to float it needs to displace an amount of water that weighs more than itself. Body density, or its mass per unit volume, also impacts on the ability to float. Density is an expression of how tightly a body’s matter is enclosed within itself.
Centre of buoyancy
If our average total body density is higher than that of water, we sink but this does not happen uniformly. Every floating object has a centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy. We saw on page 223 that the centre of gravity is the point around which the body’s weight is equally balanced in all directions.
The centre of buoyancy is the centre of gravity of the fluid displaced by a floating object. Around this point, all the buoyancy forces are balanced
Fluid resistance
When a body or object moves, whether it be in air or...

...CHAPTER 1: FLUID PROPERTIES
LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of this topic, you should be able to: Define Fluid State differences between solid and fluid Calculate common fluid properties: i. Mass density ii. Specific weight iii. Relative density iv. Dynamic viscosity v. Kinematic viscosity
INTRODUCTION
FluidMechanics
Gas Liquids Statics
i
F 0 F 0
i
Laminar/ Turbulent
Dynamics
, Flows
Compressible/ Incompressible
Air, He, Ar, N2, etc.
Water, Oils, Alcohols, etc.
Stability Pressure Buoyancy
Surface Tension Compressibility Density Viscosity Vapor Pressure
Steady/Unsteady Viscous/Inviscid
Fluid Dynamics: Chapter 1: Chapter 2: Fluid Introduction Statics Rest of Course Fluidmechanics 1. study of forces and motions in fluids 3 2. study of how fluids move and the forces on them
Applications of fluidmechanics
Aerodynamics Bioengineering and biological systems Combustion Energy generation Geology Hydraulics and Hydrology Hydrodynamics Meteorology Ocean and Coastal Engineering Water Resources
History
Archimedes (287-212 B.C.) - calculation of the hydrostatic buoyancy.
Leonardo da Vinci (1500)-calculation of the mass conservation, reduction of flow resistance...

...ENT 310 FluidMechanics Midterm #1 – Open Book and Notes
Name _______________________
1. (5 pts) The maximum pressure that can be developed for a certain fluid power cylinder is 50.0 MPa. Compute the force it can exert if its piston diameter is 100 mm.
2. (5 pts) Calculate the weight (in Newtons) of 100 liters of fuel oil if it has a mass of 900 Kg.
3. (5 pts) The fuel tank of a truck holds 0.20 cubic meters. If it is full of gasoline having a specific gravity of 0.68, calculate the weight of the gasoline.
4. (10 pts) A cylindrical container has a 12 in. diameter and weighs 1.50 lbs when empty. When filled to a depth of 10.0 inches with a certain oil, it weights 46.9 lb. Calculate the specific gravity of the oil.
ENT 310 FluidMechanics Midterm #1
Page 1
ENT 310 FluidMechanics Midterm #1 – Open Book and Notes
Name _______________________
5. (5 pts) Define the term terminal velocity as it applies to a falling ball viscometer.
6. (5 pts) Convert a viscosity measurement of 7.8 x 10-4 Pa-s to the units of lb-s/ft2.
7. (10 pts) In a falling ball viscometer, a steel ball with a diameter of 0.25 inches is allowed to fall freely in a heavy fuel oil having a specific gravity of 0.86. Steel weighs 0.283 lb/in3. If the ball is observed to fall 12.00 inches in 10.4 seconds, calculate the dynamic...

...Notes For the First Year Lecture Course:
An Introduction to FluidMechanics
School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds. CIVE1400 FLUIDMECHANICS Dr Andrew Sleigh May 2001 Table of Contents 0.
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
CONTENTS OF THE MODULE
Objectives: Consists of: Specific Elements: Books: Other Teaching Resources. Civil Engineering FluidMechanics System of units The SI System of units Example: Units
3
3 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 9
1.
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
FLUIDSMECHANICS AND FLUID PROPERTIES
Objectives of this section Fluids Causes of Viscosity in Fluids Properties of Fluids
10
10 10 15 16
2.
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4
FORCES IN STATIC FLUIDSFluids statics Pressure Pressure Measurement By Manometer Forces on Submerged Surfaces in Static Fluids
19
19 20 28 33
CIVE 1400: FluidMechanics
Contents and Introduction
1
3.
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7
FLUID DYNAMICS
Uniform Flow, Steady Flow Flow rate. Continuity The Bernoulli Equation - Work and Energy Applications of the Bernoulli Equation The Momentum Equation Application of the Momentum Equation
44
44 47 49 54 64 75 79
4.
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4
REAL FLUIDS
Laminar and turbulent flow Pressure loss due to friction in...

...FluidMechanics
2nd Year Mechanical and Building Services
Gerard Nagle Room 387 gerard.nagle@dit.ie
Phone Number: 01 402 2904 Office Hours: Wednesday’s, 2.00pm to 5.00pm
Fluids
In every day life, we recognise three states of matter, Solid, Liquids and Gas. Although different in many respects, liquids and gases have a common characteristic in which they differ from solids; they are fluids, lacking the ability of solids to offer permanent resistance to a deforming force. Fluids flow under the action of such forces, deforming continuously for as long as the force is applied. A fluid is unable to retain any unsupported shape. It flows under its own weight and takes the shape of any solid body with which it comes into contact. For example;
In the diagram above, deformation is caused by shearing forces, i.e. forces such as F, which act tangentially to the surfaces to which they are applied and cause the material originally occupying the space ABCD to deform to AB’C’D. This leads to the definition A fluid is a substance which deforms continuously under the action of shearing forces, however small they may be. Conversely, it follows If a fluid is at rest, there can be no shearing forces acting, and, therefore, all forces in the fluid must be perpendicular to the planes upon which they act.
Shear Stress in a Moving Fluid
There is no...