...1. Using diagrams and/or graphs, explain the following terms:
a. Pressure Head
pressure head [′presh·ər ‚hed]
(fluidmechanics)
Also known as head.
The height of a column of fluid necessary to develop a specific pressure.
The pressure of water at a given point in a pipe arising from the pressure in it.
b. Total Discharge Head
Total discharge head refers to the actual physical difference in height between the liquid level in the pit and the highest point of the discharge pipe or water level in the outlet.
c. NPSH
Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH). The measurement of liquid pressure at the pump end of the suction system, including the design of the pump.
d. Suction Lift
Pump Performance Curve
The pump characteristic is normally described graphically by the manufacturer as a pump performance curve. The pump curve describes the relation between flow rate and head for the actual pump. Other important information for proper pump selection is also included – efficiency curves, NPSHr curve, pump curves for several impeller diameters and different speeds, and power consumption.
Increasing the impeller diameter or speed increases the head and flow rate capacity - and the pump curve moves upwards.
The head capacity can be increased by connecting two or more pumps in series, or the flow rate capacity can be increased by connecting two or more
e. Pump Efficiency
Pump Efficiency
The term pump efficiency is used on all types of...

...CBE 6333, R. Levicky
1
Potential Flow
Part I. Theoretical Background. Potential Flow. Potential flow is frictionless, irrotational flow. Even though all real fluids are viscous to some degree, if the effects of viscosity are sufficiently small then the accompanying frictional effects may be negligible. Viscous effects become negligible, for example, for flows at high Reynolds number that are dominated by convective transport of momentum. Thus potential flow is often useful for analyzing external flows over solid surfaces or objects at high Re, provided the flows still remain laminar. Moreover, when the flow over a surface is rapid (high Re), the viscous boundary layer region (within which potential flow would be a bad assumption) that forms next to the solid body is very thin. Then, to a very good approximation, the presence of the boundary layer can be neglected when analyzing the potential flow region. That is, the potential flow can be assumed to follow the contours of the solid surface, as if the boundary layer was not present. When the thickness of the boundary layer is small compared to the dimensions of the object over which the potential flow is occurring, we can proceed as follows to analyze the total (potential flow + boundary layer flow) problem: i). First, determine the velocities and pressure distribution in the potential flow region, assuming that the potential flow extends all the way to any solid surfaces present (ie. neglecting the presence...

...Notes For the First Year Lecture Course:
An Introduction to FluidMechanics
School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds. CIVE1400 FLUIDMECHANICS Dr Andrew Sleigh May 2001 Table of Contents 0.
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
CONTENTS OF THE MODULE
Objectives: Consists of: Specific Elements: Books: Other Teaching Resources. Civil Engineering FluidMechanics System of units The SI System of units Example: Units
3
3 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 9
1.
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
FLUIDSMECHANICS AND FLUID PROPERTIES
Objectives of this section Fluids Causes of Viscosity in Fluids Properties of Fluids
10
10 10 15 16
2.
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4
FORCES IN STATIC FLUIDSFluids statics Pressure Pressure Measurement By Manometer Forces on Submerged Surfaces in Static Fluids
19
19 20 28 33
CIVE 1400: FluidMechanics
Contents and Introduction
1
3.
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7
FLUID DYNAMICS
Uniform Flow, Steady Flow Flow rate. Continuity The Bernoulli Equation - Work and Energy Applications of the Bernoulli Equation The Momentum Equation Application of the Momentum Equation
44
44 47 49 54 64 75 79
4.
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4
REAL FLUIDS
Laminar and turbulent flow Pressure loss due to friction in...

...Egon Krause FluidMechanics
Egon Krause
FluidMechanics
With Problems and Solutions, and an Aerodynamic Laboratory
With 607 Figures
Prof. Dr. Egon Krause RWTH Aachen Aerodynamisches Institut W¨ llnerstr.5-7 u 52062 Aachen Germany
ISBN 3-540-22981-7 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York
Library of Congress Control Number: 2004117071 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, speciﬁcally the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microﬁlm or in other ways, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer-Verlag. Violations are liable to prosecution under German Copyright Law. Springer is a part of Springer Science+Business Media springeronline.com
c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005 Printed in Germany
The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a speciﬁc statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. Typesetting: Data conversion by the authors. Final processing by PTP-Berlin Protago-TEX-Production GmbH,...

...FLUIDMECHANICSFluidsmechanics is a branch of mechanics that is concerned with properties of gases and liquids. Mechanics is important as all physical activities involves fluid environments, be it air, water or a combination of both.
The type of fluid environment we experience impacts on performance.
Flotation
The ability to maintain a stationary on the surface of the water- varies from he on person to another. Our body floats on water when forces created by its weight are matched equally or better by the buoyant force of water. For an object to float it needs to displace an amount of water that weighs more than itself. Body density, or its mass per unit volume, also impacts on the ability to float. Density is an expression of how tightly a body’s matter is enclosed within itself.
Centre of buoyancy
If our average total body density is higher than that of water, we sink but this does not happen uniformly. Every floating object has a centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy. We saw on page 223 that the centre of gravity is the point around which the body’s weight is equally balanced in all directions.
The centre of buoyancy is the centre of gravity of the fluid displaced by a floating object. Around this point, all the buoyancy forces are balanced
Fluid resistance
When a body or object moves, whether it be in air or...

...Fluidmechanics is the branch of physics that studies fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them. Fluidmechanics can be divided into
1) fluid statics, the study of fluids at rest;
2) fluid kinematics, the study of fluids in motion;
3) fluid dynamics, the study of the effect of forces on fluid motion.FluidMechanics Overview
Fluid is a substance that is capable of flowing. It has no definite shape of its own. It assumes the shape of its container. Liquids and gases are fluids
Types of Fluids:
Fluids can be classified into four basic types. They are:
1) Ideal Fluid
2) Real Fluid
3) Newtonian Fluid
4) Non-Newtonian Fluid
5) Ideal plastic fluid
1. Ideal Fluid:
An Ideal Fluid is a fluid that has no viscosity. It is incompressible in nature. Practically, no ideal fluid exists.
2. Real Fluid:
Real fluids are compressible in nature. They have some viscosity.
Examples: Kerosene, Petrol, Castor oil
3. Newtonian Fluid:
Fluids that obey Newton’s law of viscosity are known as Newtonian Fluids. For a...

...ENT 310 FluidMechanics Midterm #1 – Open Book and Notes
Name _______________________
1. (5 pts) The maximum pressure that can be developed for a certain fluid power cylinder is 50.0 MPa. Compute the force it can exert if its piston diameter is 100 mm.
2. (5 pts) Calculate the weight (in Newtons) of 100 liters of fuel oil if it has a mass of 900 Kg.
3. (5 pts) The fuel tank of a truck holds 0.20 cubic meters. If it is full of gasoline having a specific gravity of 0.68, calculate the weight of the gasoline.
4. (10 pts) A cylindrical container has a 12 in. diameter and weighs 1.50 lbs when empty. When filled to a depth of 10.0 inches with a certain oil, it weights 46.9 lb. Calculate the specific gravity of the oil.
ENT 310 FluidMechanics Midterm #1
Page 1
ENT 310 FluidMechanics Midterm #1 – Open Book and Notes
Name _______________________
5. (5 pts) Define the term terminal velocity as it applies to a falling ball viscometer.
6. (5 pts) Convert a viscosity measurement of 7.8 x 10-4 Pa-s to the units of lb-s/ft2.
7. (10 pts) In a falling ball viscometer, a steel ball with a diameter of 0.25 inches is allowed to fall freely in a heavy fuel oil having a specific gravity of 0.86. Steel weighs 0.283 lb/in3. If the ball is observed to fall 12.00 inches in 10.4 seconds, calculate the dynamic viscosity of the oil in lb-s2/ft.
ENT 310...