Experiment 1
Fluid Flow In A Smooth Pipe
Abstract
In this experiment, three variable flow meters are used to alter the flowrate. Changes in pressure drop due to the change in flowrate are then observed from the three pressure gauges that can measure pressure at different range and recorded. The shift from laminar flow to turbulent flow is seen from the results recorded, but it is observed more clearly from the water-soluble dye experiment that was carried out by the demonstrator. Laminar flow turns to be turbulent when the Reynolds Number goes above a certain value, around 2000.

Aims
To look at how the pressure drop changes when the average velocity is altered in a circular pipe and to plot a graph of Friction Factor versus Reynolds Number. Another aim is to examine the shift from laminar flow to turbulent flow.

Schematic Diagram
Water Out
Inverted Water-air Manometer
Wet-wet Digital Differential Pressure (0-100kPa)
Capsuhelic Differential Pressure (0-250kPa)
1600 L/hr
250 L/hr
70 L/hr
1.5m
Water In
water-soluble dye
P
P

P

Figure 1: Schematic Diagram of Apparatus Used and Direction of Flow in a Smooth Pipe

Results
A graph of log - log plot of f versus Re is plotted, and a straight line of best fit through the data points for laminar flow is drawn:

Figure 2: Graph of log - log plot of f versus Re

Discussions
To calculate the slope of the best fit line from Figure 2, two points are selected: (600, 0.02) and (200, 0.07) slope=log(0.02)-log(0.07)log600-log(200)
slope=-1.14
Theoretically, in the laminar flow regime for pipe flow,
f=16Re
logf=log(16Re)
logf=log16-log(Re)
logf=-logRe+1.2
So, we expect the value of the slope to be -1. In Figure2, the slope found is -1.14, which is close to -1. Both values agree with each other. At the maximum flowrate, Q = 1600L/hr = 4.44 x 10-4 m3/s

The parameters:
d=0.0126 m ρ=999.44 kg/m3 μ=0.001222 kg/ms Sample calculation to...

...Name: ********
Class: DME2
Title: Flow Measurement
Date: 11/02/2013
Lecturer: Mr Higgins
Summary:
In this experiment many different meters were used to measure fluidflow rate; the orifice plate, the venture meter, the rota meter and the weigh tank. Each meter works by its ability to alter a certain physical property of the flowing fluid and then allows this alteration to be measured. The measured alterations are linked...

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The flow of fluid in a pipe under pressure is used to reach many goals. A good knowledge of the fluidflow and pipe pressure at some point along the path of the pipe may facilitate to determine the size, capacity and material of the pipe for a system. In engineering and...

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This experiment was undertaken for the study of flow in pipes and the factors that affect it in both laminar and turbulent regimes. The transitional regime between laminar and turbulent flow will also be studied. The experiment was done using a pipe with a known diameter, and water was pumped in from a tank. Throughout the process,...

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