Experiment 1
Fluid Flow In A Smooth Pipe
Abstract
In this experiment, three variable flow meters are used to alter the flowrate. Changes in pressure drop due to the change in flowrate are then observed from the three pressure gauges that can measure pressure at different range and recorded. The shift from laminar flow to turbulent flow is seen from the results recorded, but it is observed more clearly from the water-soluble dye experiment that was carried out by the demonstrator. Laminar flow turns to be turbulent when the Reynolds Number goes above a certain value, around 2000.

Aims
To look at how the pressure drop changes when the average velocity is altered in a circular pipe and to plot a graph of Friction Factor versus Reynolds Number. Another aim is to examine the shift from laminar flow to turbulent flow.

Schematic Diagram
Water Out
Inverted Water-air Manometer
Wet-wet Digital Differential Pressure (0-100kPa)
Capsuhelic Differential Pressure (0-250kPa)
1600 L/hr
250 L/hr
70 L/hr
1.5m
Water In
water-soluble dye
P
P

P

Figure 1: Schematic Diagram of Apparatus Used and Direction of Flow in a Smooth Pipe

Results
A graph of log - log plot of f versus Re is plotted, and a straight line of best fit through the data points for laminar flow is drawn:

Figure 2: Graph of log - log plot of f versus Re

Discussions
To calculate the slope of the best fit line from Figure 2, two points are selected: (600, 0.02) and (200, 0.07) slope=log(0.02)-log(0.07)log600-log(200)
slope=-1.14
Theoretically, in the laminar flow regime for pipe flow,
f=16Re
logf=log(16Re)
logf=log16-log(Re)
logf=-logRe+1.2
So, we expect the value of the slope to be -1. In Figure2, the slope found is -1.14, which is close to -1. Both values agree with each other. At the maximum flowrate, Q = 1600L/hr = 4.44 x 10-4 m3/s

The parameters:
d=0.0126 m ρ=999.44 kg/m3 μ=0.001222 kg/ms Sample calculation to...

...Experiment 3: FluidFlow Friction and Fitting Loss
Objective
To determine the pressure or head loss in different diameters pipes, joints and valves
Theory
Pipeflows belong to a broader class of flows, called internal flows, where the fluid is completely bounded by solid surfaces. In contrast, in external flows, such as flow over a flat plate or...

...In any pipe system there is going to be a loss of energy due to the effect of viscosity from a fluid acting upon the surface of the pipe, this is called Friction Loss. This type of lost depends on the shear stress due to the walls of the pipe and the fluid. It also depends in weather the fluid is laminar or turbulent.
A major difference between these two flows is that due to a viscous layer...

...Lecture No. 5
CLASSIFICATION OF FLUIDFLOW AND THE CONTINUITY EQUATION
5.1 Classification of FluidFlow
Uniform flow
If the velocity of the fluid is the same in magnitude and direction at every point in the fluid the flow is said to be uniform.
Non-uniform flow
A non-uniform flow is one where the velocities at different points at a given instant...

...Laminar and Turbulent FluidFlows:
If you’ve ever traveled on an airplane, you might recall the pilot instructing you to fasten your seat belt because of the turbulence associated with severe weather patterns or airflow over mountain ranges. You may also have had other firsthand experiences with laminar and turbulent fluidflows. Try opening the valve on a garden hose (without a nozzle) by just a small amount, and watch how water...

...FLOW MEASUREMENT (Venturi meter, Orifice Plate and Rotameter)
OBJECTIVES To study the characteristics and applications of various flow measuring device (venturi meter & orifice plate). To calculate the volume flow rate of water from the pressure difference of both venturi and orifice devices. To compare between theoretical and actual volumetric flow rate through the discharge coefficient concept. To know how rotameter works....

...simulate a 3-D air flow in a pipe using Ansys CFX. The pipe was simulated under specific conditions. These conditions are air temperature to be 25⁰C (degrees Celsius), one atmospheric reference pressure, no heat transfer and laminar flow. The results from the simulation of laminar flow in the pipe were compared with the theoretical ones. Also the mesh was refined in the simulation to see if it is possible to...

...PipeFlow Experiment
Purpose
The purpose of the experiment is providing an opportunity to students of experience to familiarize with some key aspects of fluidflow in pipe, notably friction losses and verify theory. In this experiment, required equipment are a water tank, piezometric tubes, pump, a stop watch, empty bucket and a...

...Name: ********
Class: DME2
Title: Flow Measurement
Date: 11/02/2013
Lecturer: Mr Higgins
Summary:
In this experiment many different meters were used to measure fluidflow rate; the orifice plate, the venture meter, the rota meter and the weigh tank. Each meter works by its ability to alter a certain physical property of the flowing fluid and then allows this alteration to be measured. The measured alterations are linked...

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